Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis , a clinical method for treating psychopathology. First laid out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work. Psychoanalytic theory came to full prominence in the last third of the twentieth century as part of the flow of critical discourse regarding psychological treatments after the s, long after Freud's death in ,  and its validity is now widely disputed or rejected. His study emphasized the recognition of childhood events that could influence the mental functioning of adults. His examination of the genetic and then the developmental aspects gave the psychoanalytic theory its characteristics.
Puss japanese korean videos double exploration of interpersonal relationships. A few institutes restrict applicants to those already holding an M. Many aspects of Freudian theory are indeed out of date, and they should be: Freud died inand he has been slow to undertake further revisions. Typically, this psychoanalysis must be conducted by a Supervising and Training Analyst. Freud noted that inhibition is one Define psychoanalytical models in psychology that the mind may utilize to interfere with any of these functions in order to avoid painful emotions. As with all treatment methods, there are also potential downsides that should Define psychoanalytical models in psychology considered. Therefore, the inclusive group of the different classical theories provides a cross-sectional view of human mentation.
Thirty years war uniforms. How can we understand the unconscious mind?
Dreams can provide access Define psychoanalytical models in psychology the unconscious that is not easily accessible. Freud's paper "Mourning and Melancholia", for example, hypothesized that unresolved grief was caused by the survivor's internalized image of the deceased becoming fused with that of the survivor, and then the survivor shifting unacceptable anger toward the deceased onto the now complex self-image. As yet unresolved is Define psychoanalytical models in psychology appropriate role of psychoanalytic thinking in organizing the treatment of patients and the training of psychiatrists after that biologic revolution has born fruit. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 50, 19— Analysts can also use reconstruction to estimate what may have happened in the past that created some current issue. Criticisms of theory have led to variations in analytic theories, such as the work of Ronald FairbairnMichael Balintand John Bowlby. New York. Stuttgart: W. Eventually, the developing child's concessions to reality that they will Define psychoanalytical models in psychology marry one parent nor eliminate the other lead to identifications with parental values. Sandlerand Donald Winnicott. Through the analysis of these conflicts, which includes interpreting the Rihanna breasts and countertransference  the analyst's feelings for the patientthe analyst confronts the patient's pathological defenses to help the patient gain insight. Indeed, they have refused to specify experimental conditions under which they would give up their basic assumptions. Led by Heinz HartmannKris, Rappaport and Lowenstein, the group built upon understandings of the synthetic function of the ego as a mediator in psychic functioning [ jargon ].
The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to help patients better understand the unconscious forces that can play a role in current behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.
- Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis , a clinical method for treating psychopathology.
- A method of treating mental illness, originating with Sigmund Freud , in which a psychiatrist analyst helps a patient discover and confront the causes of the illness.
- Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques  related to the study of the unconscious mind ,  which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Freud believed that certain types of problems come from thoughts, feelings, and behaviors buried deeply in the unconscious mind. Psychoanalysts help clients tap into their unconscious mind to recover repressed emotions and deep-seated, sometimes forgotten experiences.
By gaining a better understanding of their subconscious mind, patients acquire insight into the internal motivators that drive their thoughts and behaviors. Doing so enables patients to work toward changing negative, destructive behaviors. Using the principles of psychoanalytic theory, an analyst provides therapy.
During the therapy sessions, the psychoanalyst listens as the patient discusses fantasies and dreams and narrates experiences. A psychoanalyst also:. Psychoanalysis is used to treat a variety of conditions and emotional problems in both adults and children. A variety of issues typically respond well to this type of treatment, including:. Numerous assumptions underlie the theories behind psychoanalysis. The id, comprising both instinct and basic fundamental drives, is unconscious energy; it also includes aggressive and sexual tendencies.
The conscious mind, or the ego, serves to keep the id in check by exerting a moderating influence. These three components form the structural model of what we know as personality. The interaction between the three presents a struggle for dominance, which takes place within every person. Psychoanalytic treatment helps alleviate the underlying tensions that occur between the id, ego, and superego.
In an attempt to balance these three mental functions, patients must unveil their unconscious thoughts and feelings. Psychoanalytic therapy typically comprises a long-term course of treatment. Clients often meet with their therapist at least once a week and can remain in therapy for a number of years.
One of the primary aims of psychoanalysis is to help patients identify the hidden thoughts, behaviors, and desires that are creating problems in their day-to-day existence. The objective is to help patients understand the issues that have caused deeply rooted problems and a maladaptive perspective on life. Psychoanalysis assists the patient in adopting a fresh viewpoint.
Numerous false stereotypes and myths are associated with psychoanalysis. The general public typically holds an outdated view of psychoanalysis, perhaps gathered from television or movie portrayals of psychoanalysts, which is far from accurate.
Psychoanalysis is better suited for some patients than for others. It is particularly useful for those people who want to develop an in-depth understanding of their internal motivators. This therapy also works well for those who want to make sense of their experiences and deal with the heart of the dilemma rather than just its manifestations.
The patient in psychoanalysis typically must undergo long-term treatment, which indicates both willingness and commitment to what sometimes can be a painful growth process.
Some of the benefits of this therapeutic method include:. To become a psychoanalyst, a therapist must undergo specialized intensive training approved by the American Psychoanalytic Association.
The candidate should also have previous training and experience as a therapist. Several types of graduate degrees are acceptable for candidacy into a psychoanalytic training program, including:. After potential candidates meet all the requirements, they can apply to a training program in psychoanalysis, which typically comprises the following three components:. This training thoroughly prepares the student to become a skilled, knowledgeable, and confident psychoanalyst.
Psychoanalysis is an important psychological therapy method that can provide lasting benefits to patients — even long after treatment has ended. Psychoanalytic therapy helps individuals gain an in-depth understanding of the psychological roots that drive their thoughts and behaviors. This process of self-exploration helps the patient gain insight into their own behavior and motivators, which leads them to make healthy, even life-altering, changes.
Type of Therapy — Psychoanalysis.
This is like a "flashback" from a war or a rape experience. An Outline of Psychoanalysis. Instead, they are caused by intrapsychic conflicts. This became the received historical account until challenged by several Freud scholars in the latter part of the 20th century who argued that he had imposed his preconceived notions on his patients. Sandler , and Donald Winnicott. If you look at all of the complicated ideas that they have developed in an infinitesimal amount of time, if you compare to any other of the sciences how long it takes to get one idea after the other, if you consider all the structures and inventions and complicated things, the ids and the egos, the tensions and the forces, and the pushes and the pulls, I tell you they can't all be there.
Define psychoanalytical models in psychology. Psychoanalysis Assumptions
Using the various analytic and psychological techniques to assess mental problems, some believe that there are particular constellations of problems that are especially suited for analytic treatment see below whereas other problems might respond better to medicines and other interpersonal interventions. To be treated with psychoanalysis, whatever the presenting problem, the person requesting help must demonstrate a desire to start an analysis.
The person wishing to start an analysis must have some capacity for speech and communication. As well, they need to be able to have or develop trust and insight within the psychoanalytic session. Psychoanalysts mainly work with neurosis and hysteria in particular; however, adapted forms of psychoanalysis are used in working with schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis or mental disorder.
There are numerous modifications in technique under the heading of psychoanalysis due to the individualistic nature of personality in both analyst and patient. The fact that many of such patients also demonstrate deficits above makes diagnosis and treatment selection difficult. Analytical organizations such as the IPA, APsaA and the European Federation for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy have established procedures and models for the indication and practice of psychoanalytical therapy for trainees in analysis.
The match between the analyst and the patient can be viewed as another contributing factor for the indication and contraindication for psychoanalytic treatment. The analyst decides whether the patient is suitable for psychoanalysis. This decision made by the analyst, besides made on the usual indications and pathology, is also based to a certain degree by the "fit" between analyst and patient. A person's suitability for analysis at any particular time is based on their desire to know something about where their illness has come from.
The basic method of psychoanalysis is interpretation of the patient's unconscious conflicts that are interfering with current-day functioning — conflicts that are causing painful symptoms such as phobias, anxiety, depression, and compulsions.
Strachey stressed that figuring out ways the patient distorted perceptions about the analyst led to understanding what may have been forgotten also see Freud's paper "Repeating, Remembering, and Working Through". In particular, unconscious hostile feelings toward the analyst could be found in symbolic, negative reactions to what Robert Langs later called the "frame" of the therapy  — the setup that included times of the sessions, payment of fees, and necessity of talking.
In patients who made mistakes, forgot, or showed other peculiarities regarding time, fees, and talking, the analyst can usually find various unconscious "resistances" to the flow of thoughts sometimes called free association. Although fantasy life can be understood through the examination of dreams , masturbation fantasies cf. Marcus, I. The analyst is interested in how the patient reacts to and avoids such fantasies cf. There is what is known among psychoanalysts as "classical technique", although Freud throughout his writings deviated from this considerably, depending on the problems of any given patient.
Classical technique was summarized by Allan Compton, MD, as comprising instructions telling the patient to try to say what's on their mind, including interferences ; exploration asking questions ; and clarification rephrasing and summarizing what the patient has been describing.
As well, the analyst can also use confrontation to bringing an aspect of functioning, usually a defense, to the patient's attention. The analyst then uses a variety of interpretation methods, such as dynamic interpretation explaining how being too nice guards against guilt, e. Analysts can also use reconstruction to estimate what may have happened in the past that created some current issue.
These techniques are primarily based on conflict theory see above. These have sometimes been called interpersonal, intersubjective cf. Stolorow , relational, or corrective object relations techniques.
These techniques include expressing an empathic attunement to the patient or warmth; exposing a bit of the analyst's personal life or attitudes to the patient; allowing the patient autonomy in the form of disagreement with the analyst cf.
Paul, Letters to Simon ; and explaining the motivations of others which the patient misperceives. Ego psychological concepts of deficit in functioning led to refinements in supportive therapy. These techniques are particularly applicable to psychotic and near-psychotic cf.
These supportive therapy techniques include discussions of reality; encouragement to stay alive including hospitalization ; psychotropic medicines to relieve overwhelming depressive affect or overwhelming fantasies hallucinations and delusions ; and advice about the meanings of things to counter abstraction failures. The notion of the "silent analyst" has been criticized. Actually, the analyst listens using Arlow's approach as set out in "The Genesis of Interpretation", using active intervention to interpret resistances, defenses creating pathology, and fantasies.
Silence is not a technique of psychoanalysis also see the studies and opinion papers of Owen Renik, MD. It refers to the analyst's position of not taking sides in the internal struggles of the patient. For example, if a patient feels guilty, the analyst might explore what the patient has been doing or thinking that causes the guilt, but not reassure the patient not to feel guilty.
The analyst might also explore the identifications with parents and others that led to the guilt. Interpersonal—relational psychoanalysts emphasize the notion that it is impossible to be neutral. Sullivan introduced the term "participant-observer" to indicate the analyst inevitably interacts with the analysand, and suggested the detailed inquiry as an alternative to interpretation. The detailed inquiry involves noting where the analysand is leaving out important elements of an account and noting when the story is obfuscated, and asking careful questions to open up the dialogue.
Although single-client sessions remain the norm, psychoanalytic theory has been used to develop other types of psychological treatment. Schilder, Samuel R. Slavson , Harry Stack Sullivan , and Wolfe. Child-centered counseling for parents was instituted early in analytic history by Freud, and was later further developed by Irwin Marcus, Edith Schulhofer, and Gilbert Kliman. Psychoanalytically based couples therapy has been promulgated and explicated by Fred Sander, MD.
Techniques and tools developed in the first decade of the 21st century have made psychoanalysis available to patients who were not treatable by earlier techniques. Eagle believes that psychoanalysis cannot be a self-contained discipline but instead must be open to influence from and integration with findings and theory from other disciplines. Psychoanalytic constructs have been adapted for use with children with treatments such as play therapy , art therapy , and storytelling.
Throughout her career, from the s through the s, Anna Freud adapted psychoanalysis for children through play. Using toys and games, children are able to symbolically demonstrate their fears, fantasies, and defenses; although not identical, this technique, in children, is analogous to the aim of free association in adults.
Psychoanalytic play therapy allows the child and analyst to understand children's conflicts, particularly defenses such as disobedience and withdrawal, that have been guarding against various unpleasant feelings and hostile wishes. In art therapy, the counselor may have a child draw a portrait and then tell a story about the portrait. The counselor watches for recurring themes—regardless of whether it is with art or toys.
Psychoanalysis can be adapted to different cultures , as long as the therapist or counselor understands the client's culture. For example, Tori and Blimes found that defense mechanisms were valid in a normative sample of 2, Thais. The use of certain defense mechanisms was related to cultural values. For example, Thais value calmness and collectiveness because of Buddhist beliefs , so they were low on regressive emotionality. Psychoanalysis also applies because Freud used techniques that allowed him to get the subjective perceptions of his patients.
He takes an objective approach by not facing his clients during his talk therapy sessions. He met with his patients wherever they were, such as when he used free association — where clients would say whatever came to mind without self-censorship. In addition, Corey postulates that it will be necessary for a therapist to help clients develop a cultural identity as well as an ego identity.
The cost to the patient of psychoanalytic treatment ranges widely from place to place and between practitioners. Low-fee analysis is often available in a psychoanalytic training clinic and graduate schools. Otherwise, the fee set by each analyst varies with the analyst's training and experience. The modifications of analysis, which include psychodynamic therapy, brief therapies, and certain types of group therapy cf.
Slavson, S. As a result of the defense mechanisms and the lack of access to the unfathomable elements of the unconscious, psychoanalysis can be an expansive process that involves 2 to 5 sessions per week for several years. This type of therapy relies on the belief that reducing the symptoms will not actually help with the root causes or irrational drives.
The analyst typically is a 'blank screen', disclosing very little about themselves in order that the client can use the space in the relationship to work on their unconscious without interference from outside. Analysands as people in analysis are called are asked to report whatever comes to mind without fear of reprisal.
Freud called this the "fundamental rule". Analysands are asked to talk about their lives, including their early life, current life and hopes and aspirations for the future. They are encouraged to report their fantasies, "flash thoughts" and dreams. In fact, Freud believed that dreams were, "the royal road to the unconscious"; he devoted an entire volume to the interpretation of dreams.
Also, psychoanalysts encourage their patients to recline on a couch. Typically, the psychoanalyst sits, out of sight, behind the patient. The psychoanalyst's task, in collaboration with the analysand, is to help deepen the analysand's understanding of those factors, outside of his awareness, that drive his behaviors. In the safe environment of the psychoanalytic setting, the analysand becomes attached to the analyst and pretty soon he begins to experience the same conflicts with his analyst that he experiences with key figures in his life such as his parents, his boss, his significant other, etc.
It is the psychoanalyst's role to point out these conflicts and to interpret them. The transferring of these internal conflicts onto the analyst is called "transference". On average, classical analysis may last 5. Psychoanalytic training in the United States involves a personal psychoanalysis for the trainee, approximately hours of class instruction, with a standard curriculum, over a four or five-year period.
Typically, this psychoanalysis must be conducted by a Supervising and Training Analyst. Certification entails a blind review in which the psychoanalyst's work is vetted by psychoanalysts outside of their local community. After earning certification, these psychoanalysts undergo another hurdle in which they are specially vetted by senior members of their own institute.
Supervising and Training analysts are held to the highest clinical and ethical standards. Similarly, class instruction for psychoanalytic candidates is rigorous. Typically classes meet several hours a week, or for a full day or two every other weekend during the academic year; this varies with the institute. Candidates generally have an hour of supervision each week, with a Supervising and Training Analyst, on each psychoanalytic case.
The minimum number of cases varies between institutes, often two to four cases. Male and female cases are required. Supervision is done in the supervisor's office, where the trainee presents material from the psychoanalytic work that week.
In supervision, the patient's unconscious conflicts are explored, also, transference-countertransference constellations are examined. Also, clinical technique is taught. Because of theoretical differences, there are independent institutes, usually founded by psychologists, who until were not permitted access to psychoanalytic training institutes of the APsaA.
Currently there are between 75 and independent institutes in the United States. As well, other institutes are affiliated to other organizations such as the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry , and the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. A few institutes restrict applicants to those already holding an M.
It was founded by the analyst Theodor Reik. Some psychoanalytic training has been set up as a post-doctoral fellowship in university settings, such as at Duke University, Yale University, New York University, Adelphi University and Columbia University.
Other psychoanalytic institutes may not be directly associated with universities, but the faculty at those institutes usually hold contemporaneous faculty positions with psychology Ph. The IPA is the world's primary accrediting and regulatory body for psychoanalysis.
Their mission is to assure the continued vigor and development of psychoanalysis for the benefit of psychoanalytic patients. It works in partnership with its 70 constituent organizations in 33 countries to support 11, members. In the US, there are 77 psychoanalytical organizations, institutes associations in the United States, which are spread across the states of America.
The aims of APSaA and other psychoanalytical organizations are: provide ongoing educational opportunities for its members, stimulate the development and research of psychoanalysis, provide training and organize conferences. There are eight affiliated study groups in the United States. A study group is the first level of integration of a psychoanalytical body within the IPA, followed by a provisional society and finally a member society.
Until the establishment of the Division of Psychoanalysis, psychologists who had trained in independent institutes had no national organization. The Division of Psychoanalysis now has approximately 4, members and approximately 30 local chapters in the United States. The Division of Psychoanalysis holds two annual meetings or conferences and offers continuing education in theory, research and clinical technique, as do their affiliated local chapters.
This organization is affiliated with the IPA. In there were approximately 3, individual members in 22 countries, speaking 18 different languages. There are also 25 psychoanalytic societies. Until it was known as the National Membership Committee on Psychoanalysis. The organization was founded because although social workers represented the larger number of people who were training to be psychoanalysts, they were underrepresented as supervisors and teachers at the institutes they attended.
It holds a bi-annual national conference and numerous annual local conferences. Experiences of psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists and research into infant and child development have led to new insights. With the expansion of psychoanalysis in the United Kingdom the Society was renamed the British Psychoanalytical Society in Soon after, the Institute of Psychoanalysis was established to administer the Society's activities.
These include: the training of psychoanalysts, the development of the theory and practice of psychoanalysis, the provision of treatment through The London Clinic of Psychoanalysis, the publication of books in The New Library of Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Ideas. The Institute of Psychoanalysis also publishes The International Journal of Psychoanalysis , maintains a library, furthers research, and holds public lectures. The society has a Code of Ethics and an Ethical Committee.
The society, the institute and the clinic are all located at Byron House. The society is a component of the IPA, a body with members on all five continents that safeguards professional and ethical practice. All members of the British Psychoanalytical Society are required to undertake continuing professional development. Sandler , and Donald Winnicott. The Society, in conjunction with Random House , will soon publish a new, revised and expanded Standard Edition.
With the New Library of Psychoanalysis the Institute continues to publish the books of leading theorists and practitioners. Now in its 84th year, it has one of the largest circulations of any psychoanalytic journal. Over a hundred years of case reports and studies in the journal Modern Psychoanalysis , the Psychoanalytic Quarterly , the International Journal of Psychoanalysis and the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association have analyzed the efficacy of analysis in cases of neurosis and character or personality problems.
Psychoanalysis modified by object relations techniques has been shown to be effective in many cases of ingrained problems of intimacy and relationship cf. Psychoanalytic treatment, in other situations, may run from about a year to many years, depending on the severity and complexity of the pathology. Psychoanalytic theory has, from its inception, been the subject of criticism and controversy.
Freud remarked on this early in his career, when other physicians in Vienna ostracized him for his findings that hysterical conversion symptoms were not limited to women. Challenges to analytic theory began with Otto Rank and Alfred Adler turn of the 20th century , continued with behaviorists e.
Wolpe into the s and '50s, and have persisted e. Criticisms come from those who object to the notion that there are mechanisms, thoughts or feelings in the mind that could be unconscious. Criticisms also have been leveled against the idea of "infantile sexuality" the recognition that children between ages two and six imagine things about procreation. Criticisms of theory have led to variations in analytic theories, such as the work of Ronald Fairbairn , Michael Balint , and John Bowlby.
Psychoanalysis has been used as a research tool into childhood development cf. There are different forms of psychoanalysis and psychotherapies in which psychoanalytic thinking is practiced. Besides classical psychoanalysis there is for example psychoanalytic psychotherapy , a therapeutic approach which widens "the accessibility of psychoanalytic theory and clinical practices that had evolved over plus years to a larger number of individuals.
The psychoanalytic profession has been resistant to researching efficacy. A study found evidence of better long-term outcomes for depression after psychoanalysis. Meta-analyses in and found support or evidence for the efficacy of psychoanalytic therapy, thus further research is needed. In , the American Psychological Association made comparisons between psychodynamic treatment and a non-dynamic competitor and found that 6 were superior, 5 were inferior, 28 had no difference and 63 were adequate.
The study found that this could be used as a basis "to make psychodynamic psychotherapy an 'empirically validated' treatment. A meta-analysis of Long Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in found an overall effect size of.
This study concluded the recovery rate following LTPP was equal to control treatments, including treatment as usual, and found the evidence for the effectiveness of LTPP to be limited and at best conflicting.
According to a French review conducted by INSERM , psychoanalysis was presumed or proven effective at treating panic disorder , post-traumatic stress and personality disorders. The world's largest randomized controlled trial on therapy with anorexia nervosa outpatients, the ANTOP-Study, published in The Lancet , found evidence that modified psychodynamic therapy is effective in increasing body mass index after a month treatment and that the effect is persistent until at least a year after concluding the treatment.
Relative to other treatments assigned, it was found to be as effective in increasing body mass index as cognitive behavioral therapy and as a standard treatment protocol which consisted of referral to a list of psychotherapists with experience in treating eating-disorders in addition to close monitoring and treatment by a family doctor.
A systematic review of the medical literature by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that no data exist demonstrating that psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in treating schizophrenia and severe mental illness, and cautioned that medication should always be used alongside any type of talk therapy in schizophrenia cases. Both Freud and psychoanalysis have been criticized in extreme terms. Early critics of psychoanalysis believed that its theories were based too little on quantitative and experimental research , and too much on the clinical case study method.
Karl Popper argued that psychoanalysis is a pseudoscience because its claims are not testable and cannot be refuted; that is, they are not falsifiable. Indeed, they have refused to specify experimental conditions under which they would give up their basic assumptions. Scruton nevertheless concluded that psychoanalysis is not genuinely scientific, on the grounds that it involves an unacceptable dependence on metaphor. Cognitive scientists , in particular, have also weighed in.
Martin Seligman , a prominent academic in positive psychology wrote, "Thirty years ago, the cognitive revolution in psychology overthrew both Freud and the behaviorists, at least in academia. Kihlstrom  have also criticized the field as pseudoscience. Richard Feynman wrote off psychoanalysts as mere "witch doctors":. If you look at all of the complicated ideas that they have developed in an infinitesimal amount of time, if you compare to any other of the sciences how long it takes to get one idea after the other, if you consider all the structures and inventions and complicated things, the ids and the egos, the tensions and the forces, and the pushes and the pulls, I tell you they can't all be there.
It's too much for one brain or a few brains to have cooked up in such a short time. The psychiatrist E. She scrutinized and rejected the validity of Freud's drive theory , including the Oedipus complex, which, according to her and Jeffrey Masson , blames the child for the abusive sexual behavior of adults.
He concluded that there is little evidence to support the existence of the Oedipus complex. Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze claimed that the institution of psychoanalysis has become a center of power and that its confessional techniques resemble the Christian tradition. The theoretical foundations of psychoanalysis lie in the same philosophical currents that lead to interpretive phenomenology rather than in those that lead to scientific positivism , making the theory largely incompatible with positivist approaches to the study of the mind.
Although numerous studies have shown that the efficacy of therapy is primarily related to the quality of the therapist,  rather than the school or technique or training, a French report from INSERM concluded that psychoanalytic therapy is less effective than other psychotherapies including cognitive behavioral therapy for certain diseases. This report used a meta-analysis of numerous other studies to find whether the treatment was "proven" or "presumed" to be effective on different diseases.
What is crucial to modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the power of the unconscious and the transference phenomenon. The idea of "unconscious" is contested because human behavior can be observed while human mental activity has to be inferred.
However, the unconscious is now a popular topic of study in the fields of experimental and social psychology e. Recent developments in neuroscience have resulted in one side arguing that it has provided a biological basis for unconscious emotional processing in line with psychoanalytic theory i.
Shlomo Kalo explains that the scientific materialism that flourished in the 19th century severely harmed religion and rejected whatever called spiritual. The institution of the confession priest in particular was badly damaged. The empty void that this institution left behind was swiftly occupied by the newborn psychoanalysis.
In his writings Kalo claims that psychoanalysis basic approach is erroneous. It represents the mainline wrong assumptions that happiness is unreachable and that the natural desire of a human being is to exploit his fellow men for his own pleasure and benefit. Jacques Derrida incorporated aspects of psychoanalytic theory into his theory of deconstruction in order to question what he called the ' metaphysics of presence '.
Derrida also turns some of these ideas against Freud, to reveal tensions and contradictions in his work. For example, although Freud defines religion and metaphysics as displacements of the identification with the father in the resolution of the Oedipal complex, Derrida insists in The Postcard: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond that the prominence of the father in Freud's own analysis is itself indebted to the prominence given to the father in Western metaphysics and theology since Plato.
Psychoanalysis continues to be practiced by psychiatrists, social workers, and other mental health professionals; however, its practice has declined. For session frequency, Hinshelwood, Robert D. Hinshelwood, and Jean-Marie Gauthier eds. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought.
Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. Main article: Culturalist psychoanalysts. Main article: Robert Langs. Many aspects of Freudian theory are indeed out of date, and they should be: Freud died in , and he has been slow to undertake further revisions. His critics, however, are equally behind the times, attacking Freudian views of the s as if they continue to have some currency in their original form.
Psychodynamic theory and therapy have evolved considerably since when Freud's bearded countenance was last sighted in earnest. Contemporary psychoanalysts and psychodynamic therapists no longer write much about ids and egos, nor do they conceive of treatment for psychological disorders as an archaeological expedition in search of lost memories. The science of psychoanalysis is the bedrock of psychodynamic understanding and forms the fundamental theoretical frame of reference for a variety of forms of therapeutic intervention, embracing not only psychoanalysis itself but also various forms of psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and related forms of therapy using psychodynamic concepts.
As yet unresolved is the appropriate role of psychoanalytic thinking in organizing the treatment of patients and the training of psychiatrists after that biologic revolution has born fruit. Will treatments aimed at biologic defects or abnormalities become technical steps in a program organized in a psychoanalytic framework? Will psychoanalysis serve to explain and guide supportive intervention for individuals whose lives are deformed by biologic defect and therapeutic interventions, much as it now does for patients with chronic physical illness, with the psychoanalyst on the psychiatric dialysis program?
Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research method, a therapy, a body of knowledge. In what might be considered an unfortunately abbreviated description, Freud said that anyone who recognizes transference and resistance is a psychoanalyst, even if he comes to conclusions other than his own.
David Rapaport a once defined the analytic situation as carrying the method of interpersonal relationship to its last consequences. A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis. SAGE, , Penguin Books, , Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry. For point 7, Chessick, Richard D. Introductions [ edit ] Brenner, Charles An Elementary Textbook of Psychoanalysis.
Elliott, Anthony It is governed by irrational forces, and the unconscious, as well as instinctual and biological drives. Due to this deterministic nature, psychoanalytic theorists do not believe in free will. Freud first began his studies on psychoanalysis in collaboration with Dr. Josef Breuer , especially when it came to the study on Anna O. Today, Breuer can be considered the grandfather of psychoanalysis. The research and ideas behind the study on Anna O.
These observations led Freud to theorize that the problems faced by hysterical patients could be associated with painful childhood experiences that could not be recalled.
The influence of these lost memories shaped the feelings, thoughts and behaviours of patients. These studies contributed to the development of the psychoanalytic theory.
Sigmund Freud maintained that the personality consists of three different elements, the id , the ego and the superego. The id is the aspect of personality that is driven by internal and basic drives and needs. These are typically instinctual, such as hunger, thirst, and the drive for sex, or libido. The id acts in accordance with the pleasure principle , in that it avoids pain and seeks pleasure. Due to the instinctual quality of the id, it is impulsive and often unaware of implications of actions.
The ego is driven by the reality principle. It seeks to rationalize the id's instinct and please the drives that benefit the individual in the long term. It helps separate what is real, and realistic of our drives as well as being realistic about the standards that the superego sets for the individual. The superego is driven by the morality principle.
It acts in connection with the morality of higher thought and action. Instead of instinctively acting like the id, the superego works to act in socially acceptable ways. It employs morality, judging our sense of wrong and right and using guilt to encourage socially acceptable behavior. The unconscious is the portion of the mind of which a person is not aware. Freud said that it is the unconscious that exposes the true feelings, emotions, and thoughts of the individual.
There are variety of psychoanalytic techniques used to access and understand the unconscious, ranging from methods like hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis. Dreams allow us to explore the unconscious; according to Freud, they are "the 'royal road' to the unconscious".
Whereas latent content is the underlying meaning of a dream that may not be remembered when a person wakes up, manifest content is the content from the dream that a person remembers upon waking and can be analyzed by a psychoanalytic psychologist. Exploring and understanding the manifest content of dreams can inform the individual of complexes or disorders that may be under the surface of their personality. Dreams can provide access to the unconscious that is not easily accessible.
Freudian slips also known as parapraxes occur when the ego and superego do not work properly, exposing the id and internal drives or wants. They are considered mistakes revealing the unconscious. Examples range from calling someone by the wrong name, misinterpreting a spoken or written word, or simply saying the wrong thing. The ego balances the id, superego, and reality to maintain a healthy state of consciousness. It thus reacts to protect the individual from any stressors and anxiety by distorting reality.
This prevents threatening unconscious thoughts and material from entering the consciousness. The different types of defense mechanisms are: repression , reaction formation , denial , projection , displacement , sublimation , regression , and rationalization.
Freud's take on the development of the personality psyche. They do not support the idea that development of the personality stops at age 6, instead they believed development spreads across the lifespan. Psychoanalytic theory is a major influence in Continental philosophy and in aesthetics in particular. Freud is considered a philosopher in some areas, and other philosophers, such as Jacques Lacan , Michel Foucault , and Jacques Derrida have written extensively on how psychoanalysis informs philosophical analysis.
When analysing literary texts, the psychoanalytic theory could be utilized to decipher or interpret the concealed meaning within a text, or to better understand the author's intentions. Through the analysis of motives, Freud's theory can be used to help clarify the meaning of the writing as well as the actions of the characters within the text.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abstract Does the Oedipus complex exist? The challenges of psychoanalytic developmental theory. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 50, 19— Oxford University Press, June Personality: Classics theories and modern research.
What Is Psychoanalytic Therapy?
By Saul McLeod , published , updated Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.
It is only having a cathartic i. Psychoanalytic psychologists see psychological problems as rooted in the unconscious mind. Treatment focuses on bringing the repressed conflict to consciousness, where the client can deal with it. Remember, psychoanalysis is a therapy as well as a theory.
Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. In psychoanalysis therapy Freud would have a patient lie on a couch to relax, and he would sit behind them taking notes while they told him about their dreams and childhood memories.
Psychoanalysis would be a lengthy process, involving many sessions with the psychoanalyst. Due to the nature of defense mechanisms and the inaccessibility of the deterministic forces operating in the unconscious, psychoanalysis in its classic form is a lengthy process often involving 2 to 5 sessions per week for several years. The analyst typically is a 'blank screen,' disclosing very little about themselves in order that the client can use the space in the relationship to work on their unconscious without interference from outside.
The psychoanalyst uses various techniques as encouragement for the client to develop insights into their behavior and the meanings of symptoms, including ink blots, parapraxes, free association, interpretation including dream analysis , resistance analysis and transference analysis.
Due to the nature of defense mechanisms and the inaccessibility of the deterministic forces operating in the unconscious, The ink blot itself doesn't mean anything, it's ambiguous i. It is what you read into it that is important. Different people will see different things depending on what unconscious connections they make. However, behavioral psychologists such as B.
Skinner have criticized this method as being subjective and unscientific. Click here to analyze your unconscious mind using ink blots. Unconscious thoughts and feelings can transfer to the conscious mind in the form of parapraxes, popularly known as Freudian slips or slips of the tongue.
We reveal what is really on our mind by saying something we didn't mean to. For example, a nutritionist giving a lecture intended to say we should always demand the best in bread, but instead said bed.
Another example is where a person may call a friend's new partner by the name of a previous one, whom we liked better. Freud believed that slips of the tongue provided an insight into the unconscious mind and that there were no accidents, every behavior including slips of the tongue was significant i. A simple technique of psychodynamic therapy, is free association, in which a patient talks of whatever comes into their mind.
This technique involves a therapist reading a list of words e. It is hoped that fragments of repressed memories will emerge in the course of free association.
Free association may not prove useful if the client shows resistance, and is reluctant to say what he or she is thinking. On the other hand, the presence of resistance e. This is like a "flashback" from a war or a rape experience. Such a stressful memory, so real it feels like it is happening again, is called an abreaction.
If such a disturbing memory occurred in therapy or with a supportive friend and one felt better--relieved or cleansed--later, it would be called a catharsis. Frequently, these intense emotional experiences provided Freud a valuable insight into the patient's problems. According to Freud the analysis of dreams is "the royal road to the unconscious. As a result, repressed ideas come to the surface - though what we remember may well have been altered during the dream process.
As a result, we need to distinguish between the manifest content and the latent content of a dream. The former is what we actually remember.
The latter is what it really means. Freud believed that very often the real meaning of a dream had a sexual significance and in his theory of sexual symbolism he speculates on the underlying meaning of common dream themes.
Clinical Applications. This rests on the assumption that the current maladaptive perspective is tied to deep-seated personality factors. Global therapies stand in contrast to approaches which focus mainly on a reduction of symptoms, such as cognitive and behavioral approaches, so-called problem-based therapies.
Anxiety disorders such as phobias, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are obvious areas where psychoanalysis might be assumed to work. The aim is to assist the client in coming to terms with their own id impulses or to recognize the origin of their current anxiety in childhood relationships that are being relived in adulthood.
Svartberg and Stiles and Prochaska and DiClemente point out that the evidence for its effectiveness is equivocal. Salzman in fact expresses concerns that psychoanalysis may increase the symptoms of OCDs because of the tendency of such clients to be overly concerned with their actions and to ruminate on their plight Noonan, Depression may be treated with a psychoanalytic approach to some extent.
Psychoanalysts relate depression back to the loss every child experiences when realizing our separateness from our parents early in childhood. An inability to come to terms with this may leave the person prone to depression or depressive episodes in later life.
Treatment then involves encouraging the client to recall that early experience and to untangle the fixations that have built up around it.
Particular care is taken with transference when working with depressed clients due to their overwhelming need to be dependent on others. Shapiro and Emde report that psychodynamic therapies have been successful only occasionally.
One reason might be that depressed people may be too inactive or unmotivated to participate in the session. Another reason might be that depressives may expect a quick cure and as psychoanalysis does not offer this, the client may leave or become overly involved in devising strategies to maintain a dependent transference relationship with the analyst.
Fisher and Greenberg , in a review of the literature, conclude that psychoanalytic theory cannot be accepted or rejected as a package, 'it is a complete structure consisting of many parts, some of which should be accepted, others rejected and the others at least partially reshaped.
Fonagy questions whether attempts to validate Freud's approach through laboratory tests have any validity themselves. Freud's theory questions the very basis of a rationalist, scientific approach and could well be seen as a critique of science, rather than science rejecting psychoanalysis because it is not susceptible to refutation.
The case study method is criticized as it is doubtful that generalizations can be valid since the method is open to many kinds of bias e. However, psychoanalysis is concerned with offering interpretations to the current client, rather than devising abstract dehumanized principles.
Anthony Storr , the well-know psychoanalyst appearing on TV and Radio 4's 'All in the Mind', holds the view that whilst a great many psychoanalysts have a wealth of 'data' at their fingertips from cases, these observations are bound to be contaminated with subjective personal opinion and should not be considered scientific.
Fisher, S. The scientific credibility of Freud's theories and therapy. Columbia University Press. Fonagy, P. Several entries in the area of psycho-analysis and clinical psychology. Freud, S. Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis.
SE, Freud, A. The Ego and the mechanisms of defense. Noonan, J. An obsessive-compulsive reaction treated by induced anxiety.
American Journal of Psychotherapy , 25 2 , Prochaska, J. DiClemente The transtheoretical approach: Crossing traditional boundaries of therapy. Homewood, Ill. Salzman, L. Treatment of the obsessive personality. Jason Aronson Inc. Shapiro, T. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association , 39, Svartberg, M. Comparative effects of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.
Journal of consulting and clinical psychology , 59 5 , Learning Check: You are the Therapist. Read through the notes below. Identify the methods the therapist is using. What do you think Albert's problem is? A young man, 18 years old, is referred to a psychoanalyst by his family doctor.
It seems that, for the past year, the young man Albert has been experiencing a variety of symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, palpitations, sleep disturbances - all associated with extreme anxiety. The symptoms are accompanied by a constant, but periodically overwhelming fear of death. He believes that he has a brain tumor and is, therefore, going to die. However, in spite of exhaustive medical tests, no physical basis for the symptoms can be identified. The doctor finally concludes that Albert's symptoms are probably psychologically based.
Albert arrives at the analyst's office accompanied by his parents. He describes his problems and depicts his relationship with his parents as 'rosy' - though admitting that his father may be 'a little on the strict side. Additionally, he successfully broke up a relationship between Albert and a girlfriend because he thought they were getting 'too close.