Negative results c-section pregnancy-C-section - Mayo Clinic

But there are benefits and risks to having a c-section. Speak to your midwife or doctor about how these may affect you. Having a c-section can increase some risks to you and your baby. Speak to your midwife or doctor about how these risks may affect you and your baby. Caesarean sections performed late in labour have been linked to a risk of preterm birth in the next pregnancy.

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy

All material was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim by the interviewer. Data from women and caregivers were synthesized to inform the analysis, with findings among women supported and complemented by the experiences and impressions stated Negative results c-section pregnancy caregivers. What happens to my baby after a Porn wife slut toons Only around 2. The experience of feeling mentally incapable of caring for the child due to difficulties with processing the birth experience was especially challenging. As one participant mentioned:. What to know about precum and pregnancy. I have antenatal depression. Metrics details. This helps prevent constipation and deep vein Negative results c-section pregnancy.

Adult big baby romper. Introduction

Multiple types were present in 14 women If your period is approaching, you can expect to have signs that may mimic pregnancy. High-risk human prevnancy is sexually transmitted: evidence from Negative results c-section pregnancy follow-up study of virgins starting sexual activity intercourse Cancer C-sextion Biomarkers Prev. In the remaining 15 infants Emergency C-Sections have a different mechanism of stress, as usually the labor comes on naturally but delivery does not progress as it should. Join now to personalize. Choose an option below to continue browsing BabyGaga. I even FEEL pregnant. Consenting women were tested for cervical HPV-DNA status at their obstetric visit mean pregnancy time 31 weeks, rank 29 to 33 weeks using the same consensus primer Negative results c-section pregnancy see below Negative results c-section pregnancy that used in the initial cohort study. Of the 26 children that tested HPV positive at Dopamine dysfunction point during follow-up, 18 had at least two consecutive samples to assess HPV persistence. If your period is weeks late without a positive test result, talk to your doctor to figure out whether you're pregnant or need help getting your menstrual cycle on track. Some of the reasons are due to asthmas, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorder, immune system defects, leukemia, and tissue disorders.

By contrast, about 16 percent of births in Finland and 24 percent in the United Kingdom are from C-sections.

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  • We all know that C-Section rates are on the rise all around the globe, but especially so in the United States.

Methods: Using a focused ethnographic approach and purposive sampling, 12 pregnant women, 10 women with childbirth experience, nine non-pregnant women, seven midwives, and seven gynecologists were selected from hospitals, healthcare centers, and clinics of Tonekabon and Chaloos, Mazandaran, Iran, during Data were collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis using MAXqda software.

Six sub-themes subsumed within these major themes were: vaginal delivery as a safe mode of delivery, fullfilment of maternal instinct, a natural process with a pleasant ending, and C-section as a procedure associated with future complications, a surgical intervention and sometimes a life saving procedure, and a painless mode of delivery.

Pregnancy is a physiological phenomenon, and its end is associated with pain, fear, anxiety, and even fear of death for mothers.

Child delivery is a multi-dimensional process with physical, emotional, social, physiological, cultural, and psychological dimensions. Childbirth can be a critical and sometimes painful experience for women. Attitudes towards labor pain are associated with physical, psychological, environmental, and supporting factors, which greatly affect the decision about mode of delivery.

One of the main goals of every medical team, dealing with childbirth, is performing a safe delivery. C-section was first introduced to reduce the risks for the mother and fetus. However, today, C-section is perceived as an escape from labor pain, and the false assumption that C-section is painless, safer, and healthier than vaginal delivery has become prevalent among women. During pregnancy, women should make a decision about the mode of delivery.

The rate of C-section is one of the indices of health insurance. Based on the reports of WHO in , this rate has significantly increased, worldwide. However, this method has currently become a way of escaping from labor pain. People have a common belief that cesarean delivery is less painful, safer, and healthier than vaginal delivery.

These views are based on different information sources, which are vary in terms of accuracy and reliability. In a focused ethnography conducted by Latifnejad Roudsari et al. On the other hand, in a qualitative study by Zakerihamidi et al. It should be considered that sometimes mothers, who are not adequately informed about the mode of delivery, refuse to undergo C-section when this procedure is necessary for the prevention of maternal and fetal risks.

Also, the majority of studies were cross-sectional, evaluating different modes of delivery and the factors related to choosing a particular mode of childbirth. Therefore, there is insufficient knowledge about the perception and experiences of women on various modes of delivery.

Considering the subject of the present study, a focused ethnographic approach was applied. This method was selected since the researcher aimed to investigate the common behavioral patterns, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of participants about different modes of delivery. For this reason, focused ethnography was selected as the study method. Focused ethnography evaluates a specific problem in a specific field with a small number of sample. The main features of this method are close observation of participants in the location, asking questions to gain an insight into current events, and using other available resources for a complete understanding of people, places, and events.

Focused ethnography emphasizes on emic perspectives regarding specific activities and measures. In other words, in focused ethnography, it is not necessary to recognize the whole cultural background, but only certain elements of knowledge, related to the focus of the study, are targeted. The study participants included 12 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, 10 women with childbirth experience, nine non-pregnant women, seven midwives, and seven gynecologists a total of The pregnant women were selected from those who were referring to healthcare centers or gynecology clinics of Tonekabon and Chaloos cities for prenatal care in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Postpartum women were selected from those hospitalized in Tonekabon and Chaloos hospitals or those referring to healthcare centers or gynecology clinics to receive postpartum care within six months after delivery. Non-pregnant women were chosen from native women, who were interested in participating in the study and had referred to healthcare centers or gynecology clinics of these two cities.

Exclusion criteria were as follows: 1 internal disorders and diseases; 2 obstetric complications, leading to emergency cesarean section; and 3 unwillingness to participate in the study. The participants were selected using purposeful sampling and maximum variation strategy. The researcher selected the participants from different groups with different characteristics and points of view. The researcher introduced herself and explained the study objectvies to the participants.

The subjects were ensured about the confidentiality of the data, and were able to withdraw from the study at any point. By observing the ethical considerations, semi-structured interviews and observations were performed in a quiet and private environment by asking open-ended questions. The present study was approved by the ethics committee of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, and written informed consents were obtained from all participants at the beginning of the study.

The mean duration of interviews and observations was 1 hour and 1. In this study, during the observations, nine components of cultural context including environment of the study location, actors or participants in the settings, activities, objects, acts, events, time of activities, goals i. In this study, the researcher fully immersed herself in the culture related to the selection of the mode of delivery in order to improve her interpretation and analysis of the topic under study.

In addition to immersion in the data, the researcher recorded and reviewed her observations. The observations were recorded as field notes. The observation of participants not only led to an understading of the studied cultural field, but also helped the researcher to be a part of the culture, i. The combination of these two different roles researcher as participant contributed to the understanding of events and behaviors, related to the selection of the mode of delivery.

To conduct semi-structured interviews, an interview guide was used. In addition, during the rest of the interview, probing questions were used, if required. In this study, after interviewing 45 participants, we reached data saturation.

At first, two primary interviews were conducted. The interview questions were concerned with the meaning and significance of vaginal delivery for the participant, the meaning and significance of C-section for the participant, the reasons for choosing vaginal delivery, and the reasons for choosing C-section. The mean age of the participants was As one participant pointed out:.

As some of the participants acknowledged, vaginal delivery was accompanied by fast recovery. As an interviewee said:. I recovered pretty fast and helped others. The pain starts after childbirth.

But in vaginal delivery, pain is only before and during the delivery. As participants pointed out, vaginal delivery is a safe mode of delivery since it ensures the health of both mother and fetus and helps improve the health of family and community.

One of the pregnant women stated that vaginal delivery detoxifies the body, and the body can regain its health:. A small number of interviewees believed that vaginal delivery leads to pelvic floor dysfunction, perineal relaxation, and orgasmic disorders; such information was provided by their friends and relatives. However, these participants still considered vaginal delivery as an acceptable mode of delivery with very few complications.

As one participant mentioned:. A gynecologist, who avoided C-section due to non-medical reasons, in favor of vaginal delivery, noted the negative effects of pregnancy on pelvic floor muscles and mentioned the impact of pregnancy and hormonal changes on the loosening of pelvic floor muscles:.

I always tell mothers that pregnancy and its hormonal changes cause pelvic problems, regardless of the mode of delivery; this is why I prefer vaginal delivery.

As one participant said:. In that very moment, I found out how great mothers are. This is why we can never repay what they have done for us. Participants believed that during vaginal delivery, mothers actively participate in delivery and give birth after enduring excruciating pain.

Therefore, maternal feelings are intensified by giving natural birth. Although you feel so much pain, in the end, the pain ends in happiness. Vaginal delivery means birth; it is a good feeling. Some participants believed that vaginal delivery could help women attain a state of comfort. In fact, this feeling increases maternal satisfaction with vaginal delivery.

Participants, in favor of vaginal delivery, believed that active maternal role during labor helps mothers form an enduring bond with their infants. They assumed that C-section deprives mothers of such feelings, since they do not experience the pain associated with vaginal delivery. As one participant remarked:. Participants also mentioned some short- and long-term complications. The short-term complications include placental adhesion, inertia, hysterectomy, postoperative inability, leaving surgical instruments in the abdomen, anesthesia- and analgesia-related side effects, adverse gastrointestinal effects, several incisions on the body, postoperative pain, problems related to sutures, slow recovery, reduced lactation resulting in formula use and colic.

In this regard, an interviewee said:. When I got home, it was like I had left the house for a long time.

I was very confused. Then, I found out it was a side-effect of general anesthesia. In other words, one C-section predicted the mode of next deliveries. When you have C-section for the first time, the next deliveries should be also the same. According to their belief, observing the process of natural childbirth and delivery of the fetus was a joyful experience, which helped physicians understand the power of God:.

Cesarean section does not give me the same feeling. I mean, the baby is delivered very quickly, but during natural delivery, the baby is born slowly, which is really enjoyable for me.

They beleived that in case of contraindications to vaginal delivery, performing C-section would be inevitable for the mother and fetus. When there is absolutely nothing else that we can do and there is no other way to save the preganncy, we should choose C-section. They believed that C-section only poses risks for the mother.

Although it may cause some risks like infection for me, I am ok with it as long as my baby is safe. Pariticipants considered vaginal delivery as a painful experience, whereas C-section was assumed to be painless, due to receiving anesthesia.

In many cases, mothers cannot tolerate the pain and they prefer C-section. In addition, fear and anxiety may lead to pain aggravation. I think vaginal delivery is very difficult. One of the midwives, with a previous history of cesarean section, commented that pain after delivery in cases of cesarean section is mild and tolerable.

Therefore, the mother is able to care for her baby and seems satisfied with cesarean section.

Immediately after missing your period, you can test again for pregnancy. We use the following type of cookies: Essential cookies: these cookies are essential to the provision of our Website. Join now to personalize. If the test result is negative, you may not be pregnant. Some Doctors say that babies born by elective C-Section and specifically by induced labor experience a significant amount of shock imprint.

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy. Background

Kangaroo care is often performed by another family member while the mother is being stitched up after the surgery. Immediate breastfeeding is often not possible or not comfortable and is skipped in lieu of recovery time. It is also understood that often these babies are given formula when the mother is unavailable for the initial feeding. Unfortunately, these disruptions could have lasting implications on the ability of mother and baby to properly bond.

Important hormones are released by both the mother and baby during birth and in the hour post delivery. For this reason, many mothers report a struggle to connect with their newborns after having had a c-section. The risk for breathing complications in newborns born by scheduled C-Section is considerably higher than babies born vaginally.

With scheduled C-Sections, babies have a much greater chance of being born pre-term even if the gestational age is believed to be beyond 37 weeks. When the labor is forced, prior to a mother going into natural labor, there is a significant risk that the lungs have not yet been fully developed.

For this reason, certain types of respiratory complications can arise during and immediately following delivery. The issues can be quite serious and often require admission to an advanced care nursery. In fact, Respiratory Distress Syndrome, commonly associated with C-sections can lead to newborns being hospitalized for as many as 26 days.

The March of Dimes has expressed serious concerns over a link between increasing numbers of planned C-section and labor inductions and a rise in the number of pre-term and low birth weight babies being born in the USA.

It is easy to miscalculate a pregnancy by a week or so, and in the case of these infants a single week can make the difference between a late-preterm baby and a term one. Some Doctors say that babies born by elective C-Section and specifically by induced labor experience a significant amount of shock imprint.

From their perspective, when a mother has not naturally entered labor, it is a sign that the baby is not yet prepared to exit the womb. In other words, some babies are before they are ready and apparently there are psychological implications. As a result, some C-section babies have a tendency to withdraw. This might explain why a seemingly calm and placid baby suddenly turns inconsolable for long periods of time. Emergency C-Sections have a different mechanism of stress, as usually the labor comes on naturally but delivery does not progress as it should.

Medical intervention becomes necessary and high levels of stress and anxiety are usually present in the mother. Of course, these hormones also transfer to the baby and can result in similar problems related to stress and trauma. But, the scary truth is that thousands of infants are injured during cesarean births every year. Often times the injuries are to the face, when surgeons accidentally knick the baby with the knife. The head is usually positioned near the incision point, and unfortunately sometimes mistakes happen.

There are many stories of babies left with life-long disfiguring marks, and sometimes of babies who needed emergency plastic surgery. There was even an instance of a baby last year that died as a result of a severe accidental scalpel incision.

Unfortunately, the legal battle to gain monetary consolation is tough one, as surgeons are usually protected against this type of accident-based law suit by waivers signed by parents who consent to the surgery. This is the very first test given a newborn that determines if the baby is in need of any medical assistance. The score is a quick assessment of the baby at 1 minute and 5 minutes post delivery.

Each aspect of the test is worth 2 points and the points are added up for an overall value. The higher the Apgar score is, the better the condition of the newborn. Babies with a score of 3 or less need life saving measures, babies with scores from 4 to 6 may need some sort of respiratory assistance. Unfortunately, babies born via C-Section are not exposed to the same sort of stimuli as they are in a vaginal birth, in addition, they may be under distress from a complicated delivery.

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Determinants of both HPV positivity in pregnant women and in their offspring were explored by multivariate unconditional logistic regression models to estimate prevalence odds ratios ORs and 95 percent confidence limits. Even though these women were selected based on their HPV status and thus biased towards HPV positivity, this should not affect the validity of exploring potential risk factors for HPV infection in pregnant women.

Overall and type-specific HPV transmission rates were also estimated at any point during follow-up. Estimates are given according to the HPV status of the mother at pregnancy and at the 6-week postpartum visit. HPV type-specific concordance among paired mother-child samples was estimated among the HPV-positive samples that could be genotyped. Paired samples with HPV X were not counted as concordant.

Two parameters were used to explore horizontal transmission: HPV positivity rates in infants born to HPV-negative mothers, and the correlation between HPV status in the mother and HPV status in the child in paired mother-child samples simultaneously collected at the 6-week visit. All women participating in the cohort study signed a written informed consent. Protocols were approved by the local ethical committees of the Maternity Hospital, where the study was carried out, and the Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, where the coordinating center of the study was located.

Of the initial recruited pregnant women from the initial cohort and 54 from the HPV screening survey , 82 28 from the initial cohort and 54 from the HPV screening survey were HPV positive at the pregnancy visit.

The genotype distribution in these HPV-positive samples from pregnant women was in descending order of frequency: HPV 16 Multiple types were present in 14 women Of the initial recruited women with a known HPV-DNA status, 26 mother-infant pairs 16 from the initial cohort and 10 from the HPV screening survey were excluded from the prospective cohort study because no adequate sample from the child could be obtained for HPV testing neither at birth nor at any of the subsequent follow-up visits.

Thus, the final prospective cohort study included mother-infant pairs with a valid PCR result. A total of study visits were performed with a mean follow-up time of 14 months. All pregnancies ended on single births. Excluding untyped infections, HPV 16 singly The proportion of untyped infections HPV X was No associations were found with marital status, tobacco smoking, parity, OC use and dietary variables data not shown.

Selected determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women recruited in the prospective cohort study. At infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, overall prevalence of HPV in infants at any visit was HPV positivity in infants was not related to the site from which the samples were collected: Of the 26 infants that tested HPV positive at any point during follow-up, a valid PCR result from both the oral and the genital sites was obtained in 26 pairs.

In 24 of these oral-genital pairs the HPV status was discordant, in one pair the detected types were concordant for HPV 11 and in the other pair the types were not concordant. None of the clinical, obstetric and sexual behavior-related characteristics of the mother was associated with HPV detection in the children.

The only determinants associated with HPV-DNA detection in the offspring were the mother's HPV status at the postpartum visit and, inversely, mother's past use of hormonal contraception. However, the increased risk didn't reach statistical significance.

No association was found with fetal stress at delivery, parity, duration and intensity of smoking, child's sex, no. There was no association between mother's HPV status at pregnancy and child's HPV status at any of the follow-up visits.

New infections at the post-partum visit among HPV-negative women at pregnancy occurred in only one woman 1. Of the 26 children that tested HPV positive at some point during follow-up, 18 had at least two consecutive samples to assess HPV persistence.

Three In the remaining 15 infants There was no statistical evidence that the distribution of HPV types detected from the infants changed over time data not shown. At the end of the study none of the infants developed oral, anogenital or cutaneous, macroscopically identifiable HPV-related lesions. Our data from both the HPV screening survey of unselected pregnant women and the prospective cohort study provide for the first time estimates for HPV prevalence, type-specific distribution, mother-to-child transmission rates as well as HPV persistence in pregnant women and in infants in Spain.

Consistent with previous reports reviewed in [ 2 , 3 , 6 - 8 ] , our data confirm that the risk of transmission of any HPV type from infected mothers to the newborn is shown to be relatively low 9. Although HPV-DNA detection rates in samples of newborns and infants vary widely in the literature, well conducted prospective studies suggest that the risk of perinatal transmission, although existent, is relatively low.

Rates of detection at 6 weeks vary also widely and they are not always significantly different for infants born to HPV positive or negative mothers.

This report and our data clearly show that the few HPV infections detected in infants probably represent low-level genital or non-genital HPVs or may represent horizontal transmission. Taken together the evidence from this and other prospective studies [ 9 , 10 ] strongly suggests that the risk of perinatal transmission of HPVs although existent is relatively low.

A consistent finding from our cohorts of HPV positive and negative pregnant women and their offspring is the evidence for horizontal transmission. First, we found that up to Secondly, we found an association between HPV status in the mother at the 6-week postpartum visit and the HPV status in children at the same visit or thereafter.

In contrast, no association was found between mothers' HPV status at pregnancy and children's HPV status at any of the visits combined. Indeed, other study designs are needed to properly distinguish vertical from horizontal transmission.

These studies should include accurate and repeated HPV detection and genotyping of multiple sites from parents, siblings and care givers as well as assays to distinguish between markers of inert HPV DNA detection and markers of active HPV infection. This relatively low HPV prevalence in pregnant women correlates with the low prevalence of HPV infection in the female general population between 1.

Still, our HPV prevalence estimate among pregnant women is between 3 and 5 times higher than that observed in the female general population, confirming the findings from other studies showing that pregnant women do have a higher HPV-DNA detection rate than un-pregnant women [ 6 , 16 - 18 ].

It has been argued that immunological or hormonal changes could modulate the rate of HPV positivity and clearance during pregnancy [ 18 , 19 ]. While some authors report evidence that pregnancy decreases clearance of high-risk HPV types in the first two trimesters of pregnancy [ 16 , 18 , 19 ], others question these findings [ 20 , 21 ].

These expected associations provide further internal validity to our complex study. The effect of cesarean section on HPV transmission among HPV-positive pregnant women could not be assessed due to the low number of HPV-positive children born by cesarean section. Concerning reproductive variables, only ever use of hormonal contraception was associated with a reduced risk of HPV in the child. We do not have any biologically plausible explanation for this inverse association.

Since such a relationship has never before been reported one should be cautious in its interpretation. Concerning HPV in the mother the only correlate found for HPV positivity in the child at any point during follow-up was the mother's HPV positivity at the post-partum visit. Unfortunately, very few samples remained available for re-testing with the newer PGMY system.

This limitation may also have resulted in an underestimation of the true underlying type-specific concordance.

In conclusion, our study, conducted in a population at low risk for HPV and cervical cancer, confirms that high-risk HPV genotypes can be vertically transmitted to the child, although the risk of vertical transmission is relatively low. Given the substantial HPV positivity observed in children born to HPV-negative mothers, these data suggest that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in children and that horizontal mother-to-child transmission may play also a role.

It remains to be seen whether this alternative mode of HPV transmission and acquisition may have an impact in several areas, including vaccination strategies, epidemiological studies, and the clinical management of children with HPV-associated diseases. XC, TD, FXB, SdS were the principal epidemiological investigators in the various phases of this long study, conceived the study, wrote the protocols, assured funding, identified clinical investigators and study personnel, supervised statistical analyses and performance of laboratory assays, and wrote the manuscript.

AG, RR, JMP were the clinical investigators two ObGyn and one pediatrician , trained and supervised study clinical staff nurses, gynecologists and pediatricians and sample collection throughout the study, and made substantial contributions to the manuscript. MJQ, JM, GA coordinated the field work in terms of study implementation and data collection, designed the study data collection forms, created clinical and laboratory databases, implemented quality assurance procedures, made the statistical analyses, produced the working and final tables and made substantial comments to the manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Infect Dis. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Sep 1; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona.

Conclusion This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. Background Despite the overwhelming evidence for a sexual transmission of high-risk HPVs, other routes of transmission have been proposed. Methods Recruitment of subjects The project was initiated in by carrying out a prospective cohort study of pregnant women attending a public maternity hospital for prenatal care in urban Barcelona, Spain.

HPV screening survey among unselected pregnant women Subjects for this HPV screening survey included pregnant women consecutively attending the prenatal care clinic of the maternity hospital between and Statistical analyses HPV prevalence was estimated among women at the pregnancy visit and at the 6-week postpartum visit. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the cohort Of the initial recruited women with a known HPV-DNA status, 26 mother-infant pairs 16 from the initial cohort and 10 from the HPV screening survey were excluded from the prospective cohort study because no adequate sample from the child could be obtained for HPV testing neither at birth nor at any of the subsequent follow-up visits.

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the women included in the prospective cohort study. Open in a separate window. Table 3 Selected determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women recruited in the prospective cohort study. HPV positivity in infants At infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, overall prevalence of HPV in infants at any visit was

Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on the health of women and children.

Cesarean delivery C-section is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby through incisions in the abdomen and uterus. A C-section might be planned ahead of time if you develop pregnancy complications or you've had a previous C-section and aren't considering a vaginal birth after cesarean VBAC.

Often, however, the need for a first-time C-section doesn't become obvious until labor is underway. If you're pregnant, knowing what to expect during a C-section — both during the procedure and afterward — can help you prepare. Sometimes a C-section is safer for you or your baby than is a vaginal delivery. Your health care provider might recommend a C-section if:. However, this is discouraged if you plan on having several children.

Women who have multiple C-sections are at increased risk of placental problems as well as heavy bleeding, which might require surgical removal of the uterus hysterectomy. If you're considering a planned C-section for your first delivery, work with your health care provider to make the best decision for you and your baby.

If your C-section is scheduled in advance, your health care provider might suggest talking with an anesthesiologist about any possible medical conditions that would increase your risk of anesthesia complications.

Your health care provider might also recommend certain blood tests before your C-section. These tests will provide information about your blood type and your level of hemoglobin, the main component of red blood cells. These details will be helpful to your health care team in the unlikely event that you need a blood transfusion during the C-section. Even if you're planning a vaginal birth, it's important to prepare for the unexpected.

Discuss the possibility of a C-section with your health care provider well before your due date. Ask questions, share your concerns and review the circumstances that might make a C-section the best option. In an emergency, your health care provider might not have time to explain the procedure or answer your questions in detail. After a C-section, you'll need time to rest and recover.

Consider recruiting help ahead of time for the weeks after the birth of your baby. A C-section includes an abdominal incision and a uterine incision.

The abdominal incision is made first. After the abdominal incision, the doctor will make an incision in your uterus. Classical incisions are usually reserved for rapid delivery or for very preterm fetuses bottom. A low vertical incision might be used if your baby is in an awkward position top right. After a C-section, you'll probably stay in the hospital for a few days. Your health care provider will discuss pain relief options with you. Once the effects of your anesthesia begin to fade, you'll be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids and walk.

This helps prevent constipation and deep vein thrombosis. Your health care team will monitor your incision for signs of infection. If you had a bladder catheter, it will likely be removed as soon as possible. You will be able to start breast-feeding as soon as you feel up to it. Ask your nurse or a lactation consultant to teach you how to position yourself and support your baby so that you're comfortable.

Your health care team will select medications for your post-surgical pain with breast-feeding in mind. Before you leave the hospital, talk with your health care provider about any preventive care you might need. Making sure your vaccinations are current can help protect your health and your baby's health. You might also consider not driving until you are able to comfortably apply brakes and twist to check blind spots without the help of pain medication. This might take one to two weeks.

Check your C-section incision for signs of infection. Pay attention to any signs or symptoms you experience. If you experience severe mood swings, loss of appetite, overwhelming fatigue and lack of joy in life shortly after childbirth, you might have postpartum depression. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that postpartum care be an ongoing process rather than just a single visit after your delivery. Within 12 weeks after delivery, see your health care provider for a comprehensive postpartum evaluation.

During this appointment your health care provider will check your mood and emotional well-being, discuss contraception and birth spacing, review information about infant care and feeding, talk about your sleep habits and issues related to fatigue and do a physical exam.

This might include a check of your abdomen, vagina, cervix and uterus to make sure you're healing well. In some cases, you might have the checkup earlier so that your health care provider can examine your C-section incision. Use this visit to ask questions about your recovery and caring for your baby. Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Cesarean delivery C-section is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby through incisions in the abdomen and uterus. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic.

Abdominal incisions used during C-sections A C-section includes an abdominal incision and a uterine incision. Uterine incisions used during C-sections A C-section includes an abdominal incision and a uterine incision.

Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Berghella V. Cesarean delivery: Preoperative planning and patient preparation. Accessed May 17, Nixon N, et al. Anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Berghella V.

Cesarean delivery: Surgical technique. Cesarean delivery: Postoperative issues. Frequently asked questions. Labor, delivery, and postpartum care FAQ Postpartum depression.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Accessed May 18, Committee Opinion No. Cesarean delivery on maternal request. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Reaffirmed Cesarean birth C-section. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Gabbe SG, et al. Cesarean delivery. In: Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. Philadelphia, Pa. Berens P. Overview of the postpartum period: Physiology, complications, and maternal care.

Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Rochester, Minn. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.

Negative results c-section pregnancy

Negative results c-section pregnancy