Khajali, B. This article reviews the factors affecting the nutritive value of canola meal CM , including glucosinolates, sinapine, phytic acid, tannins, dietary fiber, and electrolyte balance. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of CM throughout seed dehulling, development of low-fiber canola, or application of feed enzymes. Over the years, the glucosinolate content of canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth of that of the older high-glucosinolate rapeseed that is, 10 vs. Tannins are of lesser importance due to their presence in the hull fraction and thus low water solubility.
Influence of 1-cyanohydroxybutene and intact glucosinolates on the nutritive value of rapeseed meal. McKinnon and Walker found similar ruminal disappearance rates for the major nutrients in solvent-extracted versus pressed Canola meal fatty acids content. Supplementing with extra calcium would help to minimize the problem, but care must be taken because too much dietary calcium may Ask a nurse columbia sc feed intake. Table 5. Performance of beef cows receiving cull beans, sunflower meal, and canola meal as protein supplements while grazing native winter range in Eastern Colorado. All the quality grades were judged by a qualified grader based on Canadian beef quality grading standards Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Dildo newfounland. MATERIAL AND METHODS
American Diabetes Association. Globe and Mail. Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 25 October Peanut . Canola meal fatty acids contentrutabagacabbageBrussels sproutsand Canol are related to contfnt. Canola Oil is Healthy Dietary fat, in moderation, is needed to provide energy and help absorb fat-soluble vitamins. Soybean . Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Retrieved 25 March Certain fats Anal sex videdos as omega-3 and omega-6 fats are essential for good nutrition and must be consumed as part of a healthy diet. Cottonseed . Nutr Metab Insights. Retrieved 24 August
Gibb, 3 J.
- Dietary fat, in moderation, is needed to provide energy and help absorb fat-soluble vitamins.
- Canola meal is palatable, with an excellent amino acid profile and low levels of glucosinolates.
- Canola oil , or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid , as opposed to colza oil.
Khajali, B. This article reviews the factors affecting the nutritive value of canola meal CM , including glucosinolates, sinapine, phytic acid, tannins, dietary fiber, and electrolyte balance. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of CM throughout seed dehulling, development of low-fiber canola, or application of feed enzymes.
Over the years, the glucosinolate content of canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth of that of the older high-glucosinolate rapeseed that is, 10 vs. Tannins are of lesser importance due to their presence in the hull fraction and thus low water solubility. The White Leghorns have been reported not to be affected. Although lower in protein, CM compares favorably with soybean meal with regard to amino acid content. Canola meal is low in arginine Arg which could be of importance when introducing CM to broiler diets at high inclusion rates.
The Arg content of CM is approximately two-thirds of that of soybean meal. Chickens fail to synthesize Arg and are highly dependent on dietary sources for this amino acid.
Supplementation of Arg to CM-based diets has been shown to partly restore the growth performance. Dietary cation-anion difference in CM is also less than optimal due to the high sulfur and low potassium contents.
Seed dehulling has not been very successful due to excessive fineness and thus difficulties with percolation of the miscella through the cake. Development of low-fiber, yellow-seeded canola and the use of enzymes have proven to increase the energy utilization and the nutritive value of CM for poultry.
The global production of rapeseed, including canola varieties, ranks second among oilseed crops USDA, The composition of rapeseed has been remarkably altered by plant breeders who have developed new varieties of rapeseed, known as double-zero rapeseed or canola. Association of erucic acid consumption with the myocardial lesions in laboratory animals committed Canada and other countries to shift their rapeseed production to low-erucic acid varieties.
In Canada, this change was completed in the late s. The second major quality improvement came in the mid s as canola breeders lowered the content of undesirable glucosinolates GLS in the seed. Although canola meal CM is commonly used in poultry diets as an economically viable alternative to soybean meal SBM , its use is still restricted to less than full replacement of SBM due to the low available energy content and the presence of antinutrititional factors.
The main components of canola meal prepress solvent extracted include protein, carbohydrates that is, simple sugars, sucrose, oligosaccharides, starch , dietary fiber that is, nonstarch polysaccharides, lignin with associated polyphenols, glycoproteins , fat, and ash Table 1. Also, the fat content is higher than that of SBM due to the presence of gums that is, phospholipids, glycolipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids which are often added back to the meal after oil refining.
Canola meal is a good source of available calcium, iron, manganese, selenium, and many of the B vitamins Newkirk, Although high in phytate, CM is also one of the richest sources of nonphytate available phosphorus that is, 0. The carbohydrate components of CM account for approximately one-third of the meal and are composed of simple sugars, sucrose, oligosaccharides, starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides NSP ; Table 1.
The level of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in CM is similar to that of SBM, although SBM contains greater concentration of the oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose.
The fiber components of CM have been shown to be inversely related to energy digestibility Downey and Bell, The GLS are a large group of sulfur-containing secondary plant metabolites, which occur in all the economically important cruciferous plants.
A wide variety of GLS exists according to modification of the side-chain structure Figure 1. The major GLS present in CM are gluconapin 3-butenyl , glucobrassicanapin 4-pentenyl , progoitrin 2-hydroxybutenyl , gluconapoleiferin 2-hydroxypentenyl , glucobrassicin 3-indolylmethyl , and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin 4-hydroxyindolylmethyl; Bell, ; Slominski and Campbell, ; Shahidi and Gabon, It is generally believed that GLS, per se, are nontoxic.
However, they are always accompanied by the enzyme myrosinase thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3. In the presence of moisture and following rupture of the seed, the GLS are hydrolyzed to yield unstable aglucones which then break down to yield a range of products, including isothiocyanates, goitrin, nitriles, and thiocyanates, that interfere with the function of thyroid gland and adversely affect growth performance Fenwick, ; McCurdy, ; Tripathi and Mishra, Although the myrosinase enzyme is effectively inactivated by heat-treatment applied in the crushing operation of canola seed, some thermal decomposition of GLS may occur and result in the formation of similar breakdown products Campbell and Slominski, Glucosinolates can also be degraded by microbial population of the lower gut with the greater amount of disappearance observed for aliphatic than for aromatic that is, indole glucosinolates Slominski et al.
In this context, the ceca have been identified as the major source of the GLS hydrolytic activity. Early adverse effects observed when high-GLS rapeseed meals were fed to monogastric animals were due to the pungency of isothiocyanates, antithyroid activity, and bitterness of goitrin or a combination of their deleterious properties. Detailed studies on the nitrile 1-cyanohydroxybutene, the major GLS breakdown product of rapeseed meal, have not confirmed a common perception with regard to its toxic properties Papas et al.
In earlier research, high levels of GLS have been implicated with the reduced egg production and mortality due to hemorrhagic liver syndrome. The mortality due to hemorrhagic liver syndrome was attributed to the high glucosinolate content.
In another study, feeding rapeseed meal high in glucosinolates decreased egg production, caused liver enlargement, and reduced plasma uric acid concentration. These effects were exacerbated by the addition of myrosinase and thus the production of GLS toxic end products Martland et al. In another study Smith and Campbell, the detrimental effects of high-glucosinolate RSM in laying hens were attributed to the glucosinolate breakdown products because nitrile derived from progoitrin, the major glucosinolate of rapeseed, was detected in the contents of the digestive tract.
In a review of literature, Mawson et al. In broiler chickens, feeding a high level of dietary GLS resulted in reduced feed intake, growth rate, and increased mortality McNeill et al. Leeson et al. In another study, however, it has been reported that the GLS content above 8. As reported by Mawson et al. Over the years, the GLS content of double-zero rapeseed or canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth that of the older high-GLS rapeseed.
Based on the recent survey involving 11 crushing plants across Canada, the level of GLS averaged 3. The level of 4. With the current levels of GLS, a content of 1. Tannins are complex polyphenolic compounds having molecular weights in the range of to 3, Da. They can be subdivided into hydrolysable and condensed fractions Yapar and Clandinin, The presence of condensed tannins in rapeseed hulls was first reported by Bate-Smith and Ribereau-Gayon This finding was verified by Durkee , who identified cyanidin, pelargonidin, and n -butyl derivative of cyanidin in the hydrolytic products of rapeseed hulls.
Later, Leung et al. Structure and chemistry of the condensed tannins have been described by Schofield et al. Naczk et al. In addition to giving the meal a dark unattractive color, tannins may form complexes with protein and proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby affecting protein digestion.
Tannins have also been reported to bind other enzymes, but Mitaru et al. However, removal of tannins from the meal significantly increased the metabolizable energy of the meal, probably due to increased activities of endogenous enzymes.
Conversely, addition of tannic acid at 1. Research has shown that endogenous amino acid losses were significantly increased following dietary tannic acid addition. It would appear from this study that water-soluble tannins tannic acid could, in part, be responsible for poor growth performance of broiler chickens.
Although the presence of phytic acid in plant seeds has been known for over a century, its exact role in animal nutrition is not completely understood. However, it is considered an antinutritional factor because it forms insoluble complexes with proteins and several minerals that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg to render them biologically unavailable Cabahug et al.
At neutral pH, the phosphate groups in phytic acid have either one or 2 negatively charged oxygen atoms, hence cations are able to chelate strongly between 2 phosphate groups or weakly with a single phosphate group.
Phytate can also change Na partitioning and as a consequence may influence the capacity of the gut for Na-dependent transport of nutrients including glucose and peptides Cowieson et al. The phytic acid content of CM is fairly high Table 1. Phytase is an enzyme that hydrolyses phytic acid to inositol and inorganic phosphorus, leading to improved phosphorus utilization and overall growth performance of monogastric animals.
Commercial phytases are produced by microorganisms such as Aspergillus ficuum , Aspergillus niger , Escherichia coli , Pichia pastoris , and others. Progress in recombinant DNA technology has resulted in the production of phytases with improved functional properties that would ultimately lead to cost savings in poultry feeding programs.
Summaries of reports on the effects of phytase on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens and laying hens have been recently published by Selle and Ravindran , Singh , Cowieson et al.
However, phytase supplementation did not affect true ileal digestibility of amino acids. Trimethylamine may be produced from either sinapine or directly from choline by the action of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract.
Fish meal, SBM, and certain vitamins or lecithins are also rich sources of choline for the hen. The TMA oxidase deficiency is not linked to the shell color, as has sometimes been supposed, given that it was found in Brown Leghorns whose eggs have white shells but was not present in a New Hampshire Red hybrid which lays brown eggs. Nevertheless, the White Leghorns have been reported not to be affected. Similarly, no taint or off-flavor has been detected in broiler carcasses. Progress has been made in identifying the genetic defect that leads to the production of tainted eggs Honkatukia et al.
Optimal dietary electrolyte balance is crucial for maximum broiler performance and livability Saedi and Khajali, ; Khajali and Saedi, Canola meal contains less potassium than SBM Canola meal is also low in sodium Bell and Keith, March corrected the depression in growth performance of broilers fed a CM-based diet by increasing dietary NaCl content from 2.
In another study, feeding a CM-based diet with optimal DEB improved growth performance of broiler chickens Mushtaq et al. It is well known that high levels of sulfur in CM could cause leg abnormality in broiler chickens due to sulfur interference with calcium absorption Summers et al.
However, feeding of excess sulfur in organic form would also result in incidence of leg problems. It has been documented that GLS in CM are partially responsible for high incidence of leg problems, especially tibial dyschondroplasia. Supplementing with extra calcium would help to minimize the problem, but care must be taken because too much dietary calcium may depress feed intake.
Work by Summers and Bedford showed that when the total DEB is considered, the higher sulfur level in CM would result in an even lower positive balance of dietary cations. Because feed intake in broilers is positively correlated with DEB, the commonly observed decrease in feed intake when including CM in broiler feeds could be related to the cation and anion levels in the diet. This further suggests that increasing levels of dietary cations will correct the problem.
Attempts should be made to supplement potassium carbonate to CM-based diets to overcome the problems associated with the reduced feed intake Newkirk, ; Khajali et al. The selection pressure by plant breeders to further reduce the GLS content of canola would also result in the reduced sulfur content of the meal, which would ultimately improve the DEB.
Distinct differences in chemical composition of these 2 feed ingredients do not make it possible to exactly pinpoint the components responsible for such a difference. Both protein supplements contain similar amounts of sugars 0. Soybean meal is higher in oligosaccharides 5.
However, CM is significantly higher in fat content, which should minimize the difference in ME content between the 2 ingredients.
Canola oil , or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid , as opposed to colza oil. Cottonseed . Increasingly, it has become apparent that the type of fat in the diet is important. London, UK: Informa Healthcare. Wallace Hayes, Claire L. Views Read Edit View history. For other uses, see Canola disambiguation.
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Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 18 August Ed, Chittaranjan Kole. Retrieved 29 December The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 September Encyclopedia of Food Grains; page Academic Press. Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 24 August Archived from the original PDF on 30 May Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 13 August Intercontinental Exchange, Inc.
Retrieved 20 March Country Guide. Glacier FarmMedia Limited Partnership. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 October Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 October The Age. Archived from the original PDF on 14 April Retrieved 9 October Monsanto Canada Inc. Schmeiser C. Retrieved 25 March Globe and Mail. Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 30 April The Nutrition Source. Harvard University School of Public Health. Retrieved 23 April National Ocean Service. December Archived from the original on 23 April Journal of the American College of Nutrition.
Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 10 August Nutrition Research. US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 3 September The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Archived from the original PDF on 23 September Archived from the original PDF on 22 October Retrieved 21 December American Diabetes Association. Archived from the original PDF on 12 September Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Food Safety and Foodborne Toxicants. Eds A. Wallace Hayes, Claire L.
Quote: "In humans. Wallace In Hayes, A. Wallace ed. Principles and methods of toxicology 5th ed. London, UK: Informa Healthcare. United States Department of Agriculture. May Retrieved 7 September Values from Nutritiondata. Retrieved 6 September Food Chemistry. The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 March Nutr Metab Insights. Journal of Dermatological Treatment. Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 15 November Baseline of Health. Retrieved 28 May Edible fats and oils.
Dripping Suet Tallow Tail fat. Butter Clarified butter Ghee Niter kibbeh Smen. Chicken fat Duck fat Schmaltz. Blubber Muktuk Whale oil. Borneo tallow Cocoa butter Margarine Shea butter Vegetable shortening.
Increasingly, it has become apparent that the type of fat in the diet is important. Certain fats such as omega-3 and omega-6 fats are essential for good nutrition and must be consumed as part of a healthy diet. In fact, the U. Food and Drug Administration authorized a qualified health claim for canola oil based on its unsaturated fat content. With its low saturated fat level, excellent balance of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, and its versatility and light taste, canola oil has found an important place in the world's kitchens, food products and restaurants.
Good for Every Body!
Gibb, 3 J. McKinnon, 2 T. He, M. Effect of high dietary levels of canola meal on growth performance, carcass quality and meat fatty acid profiles of feedlot cattle. This study investigated the effect of substituting canola meal CM for barley grain on growth performance, carcass quality and meat fatty acid FA profiles of feedlot cattle. Pressed CM from Brassica napus , containing In conclusion, inclusion of CM did not alter the growth performance or G:F of beef cattle during the growing period, but did lower G:F during the finishing period.
Keywords: Canola meal , beef cattle , growth performance , carcass quality , fatty acid profile. In , seeded acreage of canola reached record levels in Canada with As a result of removal of the oil, other nutrients including fiber, protein and minerals are typically twofold higher in CM than in the original seed. As barley-based feedlot diets typically meet the protein requirements of finishing cattle, there has been little impetus to include CM in the diet during this phase of the feeding period.
With the rapid expansion in the biofuel industry, the demand for cereal grains for ethanol production has increased. Record canola acreage in Canada could also support the expansion of the Canadian biodiesel industry, raising the possibility that CM could be used as an energy source in feedlot diets in a manner analogous to that of DDGS. Canola meal is derived from canola seed either by crushing and solvent extraction or by extrusion through a screw press.
As oil has about 2. Increasing the concentration of oil in the diet reduces enteric methane emissions in ruminants Beauchemin et al. Alberta producers that increase oil in ruminant diets are already eligible for a carbon-credit Basarab et al.
The present study compared the feed value of solvent-extracted CM arising from B. The impact of CM on fatty acid composition of the pars costalis diaphragmatic muscle was also examined.
We hypothesized that substitution of barley grain with CM in feedlot cattle diets would not alter cattle growth or carcass quality and that, high oil press-extracted CM would favorably alter the fatty acid profile of beef.
Brassica napus seed was obtained from two commercial production plants, one which utilized solvent- and the other that used press-extraction for this isolation of oil.
Four transition diets with decreasing levels of silage at equal intervals were fed over 20 d to adapt cattle from the growing to the finishing diet. Table 1. Chemical and fatty acid composition of canola meals. Table 2. Ingredients and chemical composition of growing diets.
Table 3. Ingredients and chemical composition of finishing diets. Calves were placed in individual pens and fed growing 63 d; Table 2 followed by finishing d; Table 3 diets. The individual pens were distributed in four wings of the barn with each wing having a capacity for 35 steers in individual pens with five steers from each treatment housed in each wing.
Body weights BW of the cattle were recorded at the beginning of the experiment, upon the completion of growing period day 63 , at the beginning of the finishing period and upon completion of the trial day Initial and final weights were the average of weights obtained on 2 consecutive days.
Throughout the experiment, steers were provided feed and water for ad libitum intake. Silage DM was monitored weekly and minor adjustments in diet composition were made as required to account for changes in silage DM content.
Weekly weigh backs feed refused were collected and weighed for the estimation of average daily DM intake DMI and to estimate gain:feed G:F. Daily feed intake for each steer was calculated as the difference between the weekly amounts of DM offered and refused, divided by 7 d.
Weekly DM contents of diets and weigh backs were used to calculate the feed intake, and gain to feed conversion ratio. Six composite samples from each diet within each weigh period were dried and ground for later chemical analysis. Steers were shipped to a commercial abattoir Cargill, High River, AB for slaughter upon completion of the experiment at a targeted weight of kg.
Hot carcass weight with kidneys removed , fat thickness and rib eye area REA were measured between the 12th and 13th ribs on longissimus dorsi muscle using a computerized camera operated by a qualified grader. Grade fat was the minimum amount of back fat that was measured in the last quadrant along the length of the longissimus dorsi. Yield of saleable meat was estimated using the equation of the Canadian Beef Grading Agency: Muscle score was based on grades of maximum length and maximum width within the second and third quarter of the longissimus dorsi muscle.
All the quality grades were judged by a qualified grader based on Canadian beef quality grading standards Canadian Food Inspection Agency Lipids in the PCD muscle and feed samples were prepared for analysis as described previously He et al. On occasions when the suppliers are not designated, chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Inc. Oakville, ON. As the experiment was designed as a 3 types of CM by 2 dietary inclusion levels factorial arrangement plus a control, diet all treatments including the control , CM type and level and the interaction of CM type by level only CM treatments were included in the model.
Initial body weight was included as covariate for the estimation of performance data. A chi square analysis was used to determine differences among treatments in beef quality grade, incidence and severity of liver abscesses. On a DM basis, pressed CM had a fourfold higher level of crude fat Crude protein levels were slightly higher in B. Mineral levels were generally similar among meals with the exception that iron levels were markedly higher in solvent-extracted B.
Table 4. Comparison of growth performance of steers as affected by type and level of canola meal included in the diet. Table 5. Effect of inclusion of canola meal on carcass traits and occurrence of liver abscesses in feedlot steers as affected by type and level of canola meal included in the diet. Table 6. Fatty acid profile of the diaphragm pars costalis diaphragmatic muscle as affected by type and level of canola meal included in the diet.
Inclusion of B. Table 7. Fatty acid profile of individual saturated fatty acids from the diaphragm pars costalis diaphragmatic muscle as affected by type and level of canola meal included in the diet.
Table 8. Fatty acid profile monounsaturated fatty acids from the diaphragm pars costalis diaphragmatic muscle as affected by type and level of canola meal included in the diet. The feeding of B. Table 9. Fatty acid profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the diaphragm pars costalis diaphragmatic muscle as affected by type and level of canola meal included in the diet.
Previous performance Petit et al. Petit et al. Similarly, a positive effect of CM on body weight gain of finishing feedlot cattle was observed when cattle were fed corn-based diets Koenig and Beauchemin , a response attributable to the lower protein levels in corn versus barley-based finishing diets. However, older rapeseed varieties contained high levels of glucosinolates that were linked to intake reduction, an outcome that is less likely with modern CM from canola varieties selected for low levels of glucosinolates.
To our knowledge, no studies have been designed to assess the value of CM from the perspective as an energy source in beef cattle diets. The current study was designed to assess the value of CM as an energy source in feedlot diets, in a manner similar to that recently used to assess the energy value of wheat and corn DDGS in beef cattle diets Gibb et al.
It has been shown that CM can be used as an effective protein supplement for both growing and finishing cattle Newkirk , but our work demonstrates there are limits to its use as an energy source in feedlot diets. The negative impact of CM on performance parameters at lower levels of dietary inclusion as compared to wheat DDGS, likely reflects differences in the digestibility of the fiber in these two by-products.
Production of CM does not involve fermentation and is well known that the fiber in canola meal is less degradable in the rumen than fiber from other protein sources such as soybean meal Heendeniya et al. McKinnon and Walker found similar ruminal disappearance rates for the major nutrients in solvent-extracted versus pressed CM.
Differences in quantity and utilization of nutrients for growth performance between solvent-extracted and pressed CM could arise from differences in the industrial processing methods used to derive these meals.
Neutral detergent fiber and ADF were notably lower in B. However, this difference in NDF and ADF content apparently did not have an impact on the growth performance of cattle during either the growing or finishing period. Previous studies with poultry suggested that the feed value of B.
Using B. The current study found little difference in growth performance between pressed and regular CM. As a by-product of the edible oil or biofuel industry, pressed CM has been used in the diets of chickens, pigs and dairy cattle Newkirk et al. However, very limited information is available on the effect of pressed CM on performance of beef steers.
They observed no difference in the growth performance of steers across treatments. Similarly, we also found no substantial differences in growth performance between solvent-extracted and pressed CM, even though we included CM in the diet at far higher levels than McKinnon and Walker In the present study, the fact that the higher fat levels in the pressed CM diets did not improve growth performance suggests that energy was not limiting in either the growing or finishing diets.
As in our study, carcass traits were also not affected by the inclusion of solvent-extracted or pressed CM in the study by McKinnon and Walker Fatty acid profile is an important attribute of beef products with profiles being considered to be healthier if they contain higher levels of n-3 PUFA and favorable CLA isomers Wood et al. In the present study, samples were collected from the pars costalis diaphragmatic muscle at slaughter to assess the impact of CM on beef fatty acid profiles.
Others have found that changes in the fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatic muscle mirrors changes in the fatty acid profile of backfat Kazala et al. This muscle has been used to assess the impact of diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle in several studies Gibb et al. Although there is information available on the effects of rapeseed and canola seed on tissue fatty acid profiles St. John et al. Rule et al. Levels of ALA in both subcutaneous fat and brisket muscle were 0.
Inclusion of whole canola seed in the diet failed to increase n-3 fatty acids in beef, likely because the seeds remained intact during passage through the digestive tract, limiting fatty acid absorption Mach et al. Inclusion of CM at all levels had no adverse impact on carcass quality as compared with the barley-based diets. Provision of financial support for this study from the Canola Cluster of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Viterra is gratefully appreciated.