It is formed by the protonation of ammonia NH 3. Thus, treatment of concentrated solutions of ammonium salts with strong base gives ammonia. When ammonia is dissolved in water, a tiny amount of it converts to ammonium ions:. The degree to which ammonia forms the ammonium ion depends on the pH of the solution. If the pH is high the concentration of hydrogen ions is low , the equilibrium shifts to the left: the hydroxide ion abstracts a proton from the ammonium ion, generating ammonia.
Hydrazine Hydrazoic acid. Deep into oceanic N2 fixation. Mapping of NH 3 gives typical clouds sizes of Ammonium model. Schaap, M. The AN melt is then made into "prills" or small beads in a spray toweror into granules by spraying and Amonium in a rotating drum. Ammonia neutralizes the nitrogen oxide NO x pollutants emitted by diesel engines. Doppler-shifted velocity components allow for the separation of distinct regions of molecular Ammonium model that can trace outflows and hot cores originating from forming stars. Historical Studies in the Language of Chemistry. Ammonium ions are a waste product of the metabolism of animals. Here, constrained also by the laboratory data from [ 3441 ] we systematically examine and model Ammonuum optimal nitrogen assimilation strategy under a Ammonium model of carbon and fixed nitrogen supply Ammonjum, as well as a variety of ambient oxygen concentrations.
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Dry mixing is possible and much safer Ammoniu, produces lower quality propellant. Ammonium perchlorate All Rights Reserved. This helps the contents to tumble rather than roll. Altermann and Katchalsky. Lawns Need Nitrogen Nitrogen is one of 17 nutrients AAmmonium grass and other plants need. It was a Ammonium model, messy and time consuming Ammonium model but it resulted in a morel as fine as purchased air floated charcoal. They are cheap, round, totally spark free. Due to these bans, " Potassium chlorate — the stuff that makes matches catch fire — has surpassed fertilizer as the explosive of choice for insurgents. Ammonium cation is found in a variety of salts such as ammonium carbonateammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate. According to Urbanski, the difference in the polymers lies in the degree of polymerization or Ammonium model. Specification Item.
Nitrogen fixation, the conversion of dinitrogen gas to bioavailable nitrogen, is carried out by diverse prokaryotes termed diazotrophs.
- There is quite a number of propellants used in experimental rocketry and often people will get attached to one type or another and become quite knowledgeable about that propellant.
- Preparation: It is best prepared by melting the potassium nitrate and sugar together, but this is a dangerous operation and could result in accidental ignition during preparation.
- Ammonium sulfate and urea livestock urine are two nitrogen alternatives used as home lawn fertilizer products.
It is formed by the protonation of ammonia NH 3. Thus, treatment of concentrated solutions of ammonium salts with strong base gives ammonia. When ammonia is dissolved in water, a tiny amount of it converts to ammonium ions:. The degree to which ammonia forms the ammonium ion depends on the pH of the solution.
If the pH is high the concentration of hydrogen ions is low , the equilibrium shifts to the left: the hydroxide ion abstracts a proton from the ammonium ion, generating ammonia.
Ammonium cation is found in a variety of salts such as ammonium carbonate , ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate. An exception is ammonium hexachloroplatinate , the formation of which was once used as a test for ammonium. The ammonium salts of nitrate and especially perchlorate are highly explosive, in these cases ammonium is the reducing agent. In an unusual process, ammonium ions form an amalgam. Such species are prepared by the electrolysis of an ammonium solution using a mercury cathode.
Thereafter, all four N—H bonds are equivalent, being polar covalent bonds. The ion has a tetrahedral structure and is isoelectronic with methane and borohydride. The hydrogen atoms in the ammonium ion can be substituted with an alkyl group or some other organic group to form a substituted ammonium ion IUPAC nomenclature: aminium ion.
Depending on the number of organic groups, the ammonium cation is called a primary , secondary , tertiary , or quaternary. With the exception of the quaternary ammonium cations, the organic ammonium cations are weak acids. Quaternary ammonium cations have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom, they lack a hydrogen atom bonded to the nitrogen atom.
These cations, such as the tetra- n -butylammonium cation, are sometimes used to replace sodium or potassium ions to increase the solubility of the associated anion in organic solvents. Primary, secondary, and tertiary ammonium salts serve the same function, but are less lipophilic. They are also used as phase-transfer catalysts and surfactants.
Ammonium ions are a waste product of the metabolism of animals. In fish and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. In birds , reptiles , and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid , which is solid and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss. Ammonium is an important source of nitrogen for many plant species, especially those growing on hypoxic soils. The ammonium ion has very similar properties to the heavier alkali metals and is often considered a close relative.
Under normal conditions, ammonium does not exist as a pure metal, but does as an amalgam alloy with mercury. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the molecular ion. For the ancient city, see Siwa Oasis. Not to be confused with the neutral compound Ammonia. Azanium .
CAS Number. Interactive image. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Molecular shape. See also: Amine. Main article: Excretion. Electronic version. VIAS Encyclopedia. Reece Biology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. Journal of Plant Physiology. November 20, Bibcode : Natur. Retrieved January 13, February 3, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
October 1, Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode : JChEd Molecules detected in outer space. Aluminium monochloride Aluminium monofluoride Aluminium monoxide Argonium Carbon monophosphide Carbon monosulfide Carbon monoxide Carborundum Cyanogen radical Diatomic carbon Fluoromethylidynium Helium hydride ion Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen molecular Hydroxyl radical Iron II oxide Magnesium monohydride cation Methylidyne radical Nitric oxide Nitrogen molecular Nitrogen monohydride Nitrogen sulfide Oxygen molecular Phosphorus monoxide Phosphorus mononitride Potassium chloride Silicon carbide Silicon mononitride Silicon monoxide Silicon monosulfide Sodium chloride Sodium iodide Sulfur monohydride Sulfur monoxide Titanium oxide.
Like zinc-sulfur, the burn rate depends on the particle size and how much it is compressed. These cations, such as the tetra- n -butylammonium cation, are sometimes used to replace sodium or potassium ions to increase the solubility of the associated anion in organic solvents. Starting with lumps about half the size of the marbles and smaller, it takes about six or eight hours to mill to dust. The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid : . Low impulse propellant. Accessed 22 October I used calcium carbonate.
Ammonium model. Ammonium Sulfate
Adequate sulfur in crop nutrition is necessary for crops to fully utilize other important nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Fibrant is an expert in the field of ammonium sulfate technology and leads the development of new production methods of crystallized granular ammonium sulfate for dry blended fertilizers worldwide. Our ammonium sulfate supplies sulfur in the purest sulfate form, which is readily available for rapid crop utilization. Ammonium Sulphate Compacted Granular mm and mm 2.
Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade 0. Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate, Granular. Description Ammonium Sulfate The total global demand for ammonium sulfate is approximately 24 million metric tons.
Leading role Fibrant is an expert in the field of ammonium sulfate technology and leads the development of new production methods of crystallized granular ammonium sulfate for dry blended fertilizers worldwide. Related Products Hot. Agriculture Chemical fertilizer with N Specification 1. Best fast release, quick acting, and high efficiency. Organic lawn fertilizer is slower-acting than commercial fertilizer, making nutrients available only as they are needed by the growing grass plants. Natural fertilizer may also neutralize overly acidic soil.
Overly acidic soil reduces the activity of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, which break down organic matter and create nitrogen in natural processes. If you use ammonium sulfate as a lawn fertilizer, test your soil pH regularly. Ammonium sulfate can be stored for longer periods and is not as highly explosive as ammonium nitrate. It contains 24 percent sulfur, which is one of the nutrients plants need.
Its cost is not affected by the fluctuating costs of natural gas because it is a byproduct of other industries. It is less expensive than organic fertilizer and other slow-release fertilizer products. It is easily blended with other nitrogen products, such as urea, to make a stable, dry lawn fertilizer. Joan Norton, M. Skip to main content. Home Guides Garden Garden Care.
Lawns Need Nitrogen Nitrogen is one of 17 nutrients lawn grass and other plants need. Lawn Fertilizer Composition Lawn fertilizers are created from either organic or inorganic compounds. About the Author Joan Norton, M.
Ammonium nitrate - Wikipedia
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3. A stable binary hydride , and the simplest pnictogen hydride , ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. It is a common nitrogenous waste , particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products.
It is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water. Ammonia is named for the Ammonians, worshipers of the Egyptian god Amun , who used ammonium chloride in their rituals. Although common in nature—both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the Solar System—and in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous in its concentrated form. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States, and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.
Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH 3 in water. Ammonia is a chemical found in trace quantities in nature, being produced from nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride sal ammoniac , and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Ronak guano.
Ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. It is lighter than air , its density being 0. Ammonia may be conveniently deodorized by reacting it with either sodium bicarbonate or acetic acid. Both of these reactions form an odourless ammonium salt. The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape as predicted by the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory VSEPR theory with an experimentally determined bond angle of This gives a total of eight electrons, or four electron pairs that are arranged tetrahedrally.
Three of these electron pairs are used as bond pairs, which leaves one lone pair of electrons. This shape gives the molecule a dipole moment and makes it polar. The molecule's polarity, and especially, its ability to form hydrogen bonds , makes ammonia highly miscible with water.
Ammonia is moderately basic, a 1. The latter has the shape of a regular tetrahedron and is isoelectronic with methane. The ammonia molecule readily undergoes nitrogen inversion at room temperature; a useful analogy is an umbrella turning itself inside out in a strong wind.
The energy barrier to this inversion is The absorption at this frequency was the first microwave spectrum to be observed. Ammonia is considered to be a weak base. It combines with acids to form salts ; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride sal ammoniac ; with nitric acid , ammonium nitrate , etc.
Perfectly dry ammonia will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride ; moisture is necessary to bring about the reaction. Although ammonia is well known as a weak base, it can also act as an extremely weak acid.
For example, lithium dissolves in liquid ammonia to give a solution of lithium amide :. Like water, ammonia undergoes molecular autoionisation to form its acid and base conjugates :.
Ammonia often functions as a weak base , so it has some buffering ability. The combustion of ammonia to nitrogen and water is exothermic :.
Dinitrogen is the thermodynamic product of combustion: all nitrogen oxides are unstable with respect to N 2 and O 2 , which is the principle behind the catalytic converter.
Nitrogen oxides can be formed as kinetic products in the presence of appropriate catalysts, a reaction of great industrial importance in the production of nitric acid :. The combustion of ammonia in air is very difficult in the absence of a catalyst such as platinum gauze or warm chromium III oxide , due to the relatively low heat of combustion, a lower laminar burning velocity, high auto-ignition temperature, high heat of vaporization, high toxicity, and a narrow flammability range.
However, recent studies have shown that efficient and stable combustion of ammonia can be achieved using swirl combustors, thereby rekindling research interest in ammonia as a fuel for thermal power production. In organic chemistry , ammonia can act as a nucleophile in substitution reactions. Amines can be formed by the reaction of ammonia with alkyl halides , although the resulting -NH 2 group is also nucleophilic and secondary and tertiary amines are often formed as byproducts.
An excess of ammonia helps minimise multiple substitution and neutralises the hydrogen halide formed. Ethanolamine is prepared by a ring-opening reaction with ethylene oxide : the reaction is sometimes allowed to go further to produce diethanolamine and triethanolamine.
Amides can be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with carboxylic acid derivatives. Esters and anhydrides also react with ammonia to form amides. The hydrogen in ammonia is susceptible to replacement by myriad substituents. When heated with sodium it converts to sodamide, NaNH 2. With chlorine, monochloramine is formed. This crystalline solid is only stable under high pressure and decomposes back into trivalent ammonia and hydrogen gas at normal conditions. This substance was once investigated as a possible solid rocket fuel in Ammonia can act as a ligand in transition metal complexes.
For historical reasons, ammonia is named ammine in the nomenclature of coordination compounds. Tetraamminediaquacopper II hydroxide is known as Schweizer's reagent , and has the remarkable ability to dissolve cellulose.
Formation of this complex can also help to distinguish between precipitates of the different silver halides: silver chloride AgCl is soluble in dilute 2M ammonia solution, silver bromide AgBr is only soluble in concentrated ammonia solution, whereas silver iodide AgI is insoluble in aqueous ammonia. Ammine complexes of chromium III were known in the late 19th century, and formed the basis of Alfred Werner 's revolutionary theory on the structure of coordination compounds.
Werner noted only two isomers fac - and mer - of the complex [CrCl 3 NH 3 3 ] could be formed, and concluded the ligands must be arranged around the metal ion at the vertices of an octahedron. This proposal has since been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. One example is the Calomel reaction , where the resulting amidomercury II compound is highly insoluble.
Ammonia and ammonium salts can be readily detected, in very minute traces, by the addition of Nessler's solution , which gives a distinct yellow colouration in the presence of the slightest trace of ammonia or ammonium salts. The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide , the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulfuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically ; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium hexachloroplatinate , NH 4 2 PtCl 6.
Sulfur sticks are burnt to detect small leaks in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems. Larger quantities can be detected by warming the salts with a caustic alkali or with quicklime , when the characteristic smell of ammonia will be at once apparent.
Holographic sensors have been proposed for detecting concentrations up to Ammoniacal nitrogen NH 3 -N is a measure commonly used for testing the quantity of ammonium ions, derived naturally from ammonia, and returned to ammonia via organic processes, in water or waste liquids.
It is a measure used mainly for quantifying values in waste treatment and water purification systems, as well as a measure of the health of natural and man-made water reserves. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentioned that there were outcrops of salt in an area of Libya that was inhabited by a people called the "Ammonians" now: the Siwa oasis in northwestern Egypt, where salt lakes still exist. The fermentation of urine by bacteria produces a solution of ammonia ; hence fermented urine was used in Classical Antiquity to wash cloth and clothing, to remove hair from hides in preparation for tanning, to serve as a mordant in dying cloth, and to remove rust from iron.
In the 15th century, Basilius Valentinus showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalis on sal ammoniac. Gaseous ammonia was first isolated by Joseph Black in by reacting sal ammoniac Ammonium Chloride with calcined magnesia Magnesium Oxide.
The Haber—Bosch process to produce ammonia from the nitrogen in the air was developed by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in and patented in It was first used on an industrial scale in Germany during World War I ,  following the allied blockade that cut off the supply of nitrates from Chile. The ammonia was used to produce explosives to sustain war efforts. Before the availability of natural gas, hydrogen as a precursor to ammonia production was produced via the electrolysis of water or using the chloralkali process.
With the advent of the steel industry in the 20th century, ammonia became a byproduct of the production of coking coal. Virtually all synthetic nitrogen compounds are derived from ammonia. An important derivative is nitric acid.
Nitric oxide is an intermediate in this conversion: . Nitric acid is used for the production of fertilizers , explosives , and many organonitrogen compounds.
Ammonia can also be used to make compounds in reactions which are not specifically named. Examples of such compounds include: ammonium perchlorate , ammonium nitrate , formamide , dinitrogen tetroxide , alprazolam , ethanolamine , ethyl carbamate , hexamethylenetetramine , and ammonium bicarbonate. Household ammonia is a solution of NH 3 in water, and is used as a general purpose cleaner for many surfaces.
It is also frequently used for cleaning ovens and soaking items to loosen baked-on grime. As early as in , it was known that ammonia was "strongly antiseptic The process was deemed effective and safe by the US Department of Agriculture based on a study that found that the treatment reduces E. Because of ammonia's vaporization properties, it is a useful refrigerant.
Anhydrous ammonia is widely used in industrial refrigeration applications and hockey rinks because of its high energy efficiency and low cost. Along with its use in modern vapor-compression refrigeration it is used in a mixture along with hydrogen and water in absorption refrigerators. The Kalina cycle , which is of growing importance to geothermal power plants, depends on the wide boiling range of the ammonia—water mixture.
Ammonia coolant is also used in the S1 radiator aboard the International Space Station in two loops which are used to regulate the internal temperature and enable temperature dependent experiments.
The potential importance of ammonia as a refrigerant has increased with the discovery that vented CFCs and HFCs are extremely potent and stable greenhouse gases. Ammonia is used to scrub SO 2 from the burning of fossil fuels, and the resulting product is converted to ammonium sulfate for use as fertilizer.
Ammonia neutralizes the nitrogen oxide NO x pollutants emitted by diesel engines. This technology, called SCR selective catalytic reduction , relies on a vanadia -based catalyst. Ammonia may be used to mitigate gaseous spills of phosgene. The raw energy density of liquid ammonia is There is the opportunity to convert ammonia back to hydrogen, where it can be used to power hydrogen fuel cells or directly within high-temperature fuel cells.
Ammonia engines or ammonia motors, using ammonia as a working fluid , have been proposed and occasionally used. Ammonia engines were used experimentally in the 19th century by Goldsworthy Gurney in the UK and the St. Ammonia is sometimes proposed as a practical alternative to fossil fuel for internal combustion engines. Since ammonia contains no carbon, its combustion cannot produce carbon dioxide , carbon monoxide , hydrocarbons , or soot.
However ammonia cannot be easily used in existing Otto cycle engines because of its very narrow flammability range , and there are also other barriers to widespread automobile usage.