He gained immense power by using his position as Adolf Hitler 's private secretary to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. Bormann joined a paramilitary Freikorps organisation in while working as manager of a large estate. Bormann used his position to create an extensive bureaucracy and involve himself as much as possible in the decision making. He gained acceptance into Hitler's inner circle, and accompanied him everywhere, providing briefings and summaries of events and requests. He began acting as Hitler's personal secretary on 12 August
German Ambassador to the Court of St. Blondi Hitler's dog Goebbels children. Hitler Cabinet Schwerin von Krosigk Cabinet. We really must put a stop to this eternal butting in of amateurs — and Lord Mount Temple is a particularly silly one. A photo taken of Hess plane where it crashed in Scotland Wikimedia Commons. Milan: Gruppo editoriale Adolf hitler being hung video clip. The Nazi Party was made legal in Austria to gain a power base, and a referendum on reunification was scheduled for March. This ruthless and continuous intriguing for power, influence, and Hitler's favour came to characterise the inner workings of the Third Reich.
Is shannon tweed a porn star. The remarkable tale of insanity, espionage, and conspiracies remains unanswered after 75 years
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He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1 Jasta 1 , the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen.
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On the night of May 10, , a Scottish farmer named David McLean found a German Messerschmitt airplane ablaze in his field and a parachutist who identified himself as Captain Alfred Horn. Incredibly, he was Rudolf Hess, a longtime Hitler loyalist, to say the least. Hess joined the Nazi party in , stood with his friend Adolf Hitler at the Beer Hall Putsch, and served in Landsberg prison -- where he took dictation for much of Mein Kampf.
As deputy Fuhrer, Hess was positioned behind only Hermann Goering in the succession hierarchy of the Nazi regime that had Europe firmly under the heel of its jackboot. Hess's appearance on Scottish soil, a self-described mission of peace just weeks before Hitler would launch his ill-fated invasion of the Soviet Union, was one of the war's strangest incidents.
The search for explanations began on the morning after and has roiled on now for 75 years, spawning theories both intriguing World War II might have ended differently and bizarre the man wasn't Hess at all but a body double. The truth is likely as interesting as any of the fantasies—but it's still not entirely certain what happened 75 years ago. The Hess flight was remarkable in itself.
He left an airfield near Munich in a small Messerschmitt fighter-bomber a little before 6 p. By , Hess was over Scotland, out of fuel, and forced to bail out just 12 miles from his destination.
That unlikely site was Dungavel House, home of the Duke of Hamilton. Hess believed that Hamilton headed a faction of such people and immediately asked his captors to be taken to him.
But Hess was misinformed. Hamilton, who wasn't home that night but on duty commanding an RAF air base, was committed to his country and to its fight against Germany.
The unlikely envoy's mission quickly took a turn for the worse. When granted a meeting with Hamilton the next day Hess's pleas fell on deaf ears. Worse for Hess, he denied from the start that Hitler knew anything of his mission, which meant that the British afforded him none of the diplomatic respect to which he thought he'd be entitled.
Instead he was imprisoned, and by the night of June 16, the obvious failure of his mission left Hess so mentally shattered that he attempted suicide by hurling himself down a flight of stairs. Hess spent the war in British hands, confined in various locales including briefly the Tower of London and a military hospital at which he was even allowed guarded drives in the country.
He was visited frequently by intelligence officers eager for secrets and by psychiatrists eager to plumb the Nazi mind—which in Hess's case increasingly showed serious signs of mental illness. Hess was transferred back to Nuremberg for the post-war trials in October, , where he escaped the hangman but was sentenced to life in prison. He spent the rest of his long life, 46 years, as Prisoner Number 7 in Spandau where he lingered long after the other Nazis were freed.
But Hess's death didn't end the questions. Had he really come alone? News of Hess's flight was a bombshell in Berlin, and Nazi authorities quickly moved to disassociate him from the regime.
Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi propagandist who knew much about such tactics, feared that the British would use Hess as part of a devastating campaign targeting German morale. But the furor gradually died down. Though Hess held a powerful title, his actual influence in the Nazi hierarchy had waned dramatically by , so much so that some have speculated that his flight was born of hopes to regain Hitler's favor by delivering him an agreement with the British.
Instead his departure simply consolidated the power of his ambitious and manipulative former deputy Martin Bormann. Yet a persistent theory has suggested that Hess's ill-fated peace mission was actually carried out with Hitler's knowledge—and the understanding that he'd be disavowed as insane if it failed.
Hess's adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch, had handed Hitler an explanatory letter from Hess on the morning after the flight, and Uhl discovered a report featuring Pintsch's description of that encounter in the State Archive of the Russian Federation.
Pintsch claimed that the Hitler received his report calmly. This version aligns well with Soviet claims dating back to Stalin himself that British intelligence services had been touch with Hess and duped him into the flight. In fact they may align too well, for the statement was produced during the decade when Pintsch was an often-tortured Soviet prisoner and its language smacks of Cold War propaganda terminology—suggesting the Soviets coerced the version from Pintsch.
Indeed other witnesses reported a very different reaction from Hitler. Speer discussed the flight with Hess himself 25 years later when both were incarcerated in Spandau. It had also been one of Hitler's recurrent formulas before and occasionally even during the war.
As with much of the Hess affair definitive evidence is lacking but a few tantalizing possibilities exist. The official records that have been made available, perhaps not surprisingly, reveal no such role for the British intelligence services.
MI5 files declassified in suggest that Hess did have his adviser Albrecht Haushofer pen a letter to Hamilton in , suggesting that a neutral site meeting could advance secret peace talks. However those files are far from complete. Some of the intelligence files on the Hess affair are known to have been 'weeded,' or destroyed. Whatever information they held is lost—but other classified files remain and have yet to be released.
In recent years a few other secret files have emerged. In a U. They had been missing ever since. In one of the digitized documents, Hess described his interview with Hamilton on the morning after his flight in a passage that perhaps provides the best window into the workings of the mind that conceived this unusual attempt. But the rulers of Great Britain were convinced of no such thing. Former Foreign Secretary Lord Simon, the highest-placed person known to have met Hess, interviewed him on June 10 a few days before his first suicide attempt.
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Joachim von Ribbentrop - Wikipedia
He offered his house Schloss Fuschl for the secret meetings in January that resulted in Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany.
He became a close confidant of Hitler, to the disgust of some party members, who thought him superficial and lacking in talent. He favoured retaining good relations with the Soviets, and opposed the invasion of the Soviet Union. In the autumn of , due to American aid to Britain and the increasingly frequent "incidents" in the North Atlantic between U-boats and American warships guarding convoys to Britain, Ribbentrop worked for the failure of the Japanese-American talks in Washington and for Japan to attack the United States.
On 16 October , he became the first of those sentenced to death by hanging to be executed. For the next 18 months, the family moved to Arosa , Switzerland , where the children continued to be taught by French and English private tutors, and Ribbentrop spent his free time skiing and mountaineering.
Fluent in both French and English , young Ribbentrop lived at various times in Grenoble , France, and London , before travelling to Canada in Davis on the Quebec Bridge reconstruction. He was also employed by the National Transcontinental Railway , which constructed a line from Moncton to Winnipeg. He worked as a journalist in New York City and Boston , but returned to Germany to recover from tuberculosis. Ribbentrop served first on the Eastern Front , then was transferred to the Western Front.
In , 1st Lieutenant Ribbentrop was stationed in Istanbul as a staff officer. In , Ribbentrop met Anna Elisabeth Henkell "Annelies" to her friends ,  the daughter of a wealthy Wiesbaden wine-producer. They were married on 5 July , and Ribbentrop began to travel throughout Europe as a wine salesman.
He and Annelies had five children together. In , Ribbentrop was introduced to Adolf Hitler as a businessman with foreign connections who "gets the same price for German champagne as others get for French champagne". Six months later, however, Hitler and Papen accepted his help. This led to a complex set of intrigues in which Papen and various friends of president Paul von Hindenburg negotiated with Hitler to oust Schleicher.
Ribbentrop became Hitler's favourite foreign-policy adviser, partly by dint of his familiarity with the world outside Germany, but also by flattery and sycophancy.
His sole wish was to please Hitler". When Hitler said 'Grey', Ribbentrop said 'Black, black, black'. I listened to what Hitler said one day when Ribbentrop wasn't present: 'With Ribbentrop it is so easy, he is always so radical. Meanwhile, all the other people I have, they come here, they have problems, they are afraid, they think we should take care and then I have to blow them up, to get strong.
And Ribbentrop was blowing up the whole day and I had to do nothing. I had to break — much better! Another factor that aided Ribbentrop's rise was Hitler's distrust of, and disdain for, Germany's professional diplomats.
He suspected that they did not entirely support his revolution. The Nazis and Germany's professional diplomats shared the goal of destroying the Treaty of Versailles and restoring Germany as a great power. It all but announced its intention to unilaterally violate Part V.
During this meeting, Hitler stressed what he claimed to be his love of peace and his friendship towards France. It convinced many in France that Hitler was a man of peace who only wanted to do away with Part V of the Versailles Treaty. On 17 April , French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou issued the so-called "Barthou note," which led to concerns on the part of Hitler that the French would ask for sanctions against Germany for violating Part V of the Versailles treaty.
It functioned as an alternative foreign ministry. Ribbentrop engaged in diplomacy on his own, for example when he visited France and met Foreign Minister Louis Barthou.
The Barthou-Ribbentrop meeting infuriated Neurath because the two had met without bothering to inform the Foreign Office beforehand. Although the Dienststelle Ribbentrop was concerned with German foreign relations in every part of the world, it emphasised Anglo-German relations , as Ribbentrop knew that Hitler favoured an alliance with Britain.
His report delighted Hitler, causing him to remark that Ribbentrop was the only person who told him "the truth about the world abroad". Neurath did not think the Anglo-German Naval Agreement was possible.
So to discredit his rival, he appointed Ribbentrop head of the delegation sent to London to negotiate it. He believed it marked the beginning of an Anglo-German alliance and ordered celebrations throughout Germany to mark the event. Immediately after the A. On 3 July , it was announced that Ribbentrop would head the efforts to recover Germany's former African colonies. Germany would renounce its demands in exchange for a British alliance. But of the invited powers, only the Italians would ultimately sign.
The Prince of Wales , the Legion's patron, made a much-publicized speech at the Legion's annual conference in June stating that he could think of no better group of men than those of the Legion to visit and carry the message of peace to Germany and that he hoped that Britain and Germany would never fight again.
By the s, much of British opinion had been convinced that the treaty was monstrously unfair and unjust to Germany, so as a result, many in Britain, such as Thomas Jones , Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet, were very open to Ribbentrop's message that European peace would be restored if only the Treaty of Versailles could be done away with.
Invited to stay as a house guest of the Marquess of Londonderry in November , he was taken to a service in Durham Cathedral and the hymn Glorious Things of Thee Are Spoken was announced. As the organ played the opening bars, identical to the German national anthem , Ribbentrop gave the Nazi salute and had to be restrained by his host. At his wife's suggestion, Ribbentrop hired a Berlin interior decorator named Martin Luther to assist with his move to London and help realize the design of the new German Embassy that Ribbentrop had built there he felt that the existing embassy was insufficiently grand.
Luther proved to be a master intriguer and became Ribbentrop's favourite hatchet man. Ribbentrop did not understand the limited role in government exercised by 20th-century British monarchs; he thought that King Edward VIII could dictate British foreign policy if he wished to. In fact, Ribbentrop often displayed a fundamental misunderstanding of British politics and society. During the abdication crisis of December , Ribbentrop reported to Berlin that it had been precipitated by an anti-German Jewish-Masonic-reactionary conspiracy to depose Edward whom Ribbentrop represented as a staunch friend of Germany , and that civil war would soon break out in Britain between the supporters of the king and those of Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin.
Ribbentrop's civil war predictions were greeted with incredulity by those British people who heard them. Ribbentrop had a habit of summoning tailors from the best British firms, making them wait for hours, then sending them away without seeing him but with instructions to return the next day, only to repeat the process.
This did immense damage to his reputation in British high society, as London's tailors retaliated by telling all their well-off clients that Ribbentrop was impossible to deal with. In addition, Ribbentrop chose to spend as little time as possible in London in order to stay close to Hitler, which irritated the British Foreign Office immensely, as Ribbentrop's frequent absences prevented the handling of many routine diplomatic matters.
In February , Ribbentrop committed a notable social gaffe by unexpectedly greeting King George VI with the "German greeting", a stiff-armed Nazi salute:  the gesture nearly knocked over the king, who was walking forward to shake Ribbentrop's hand at the time.
He felt that they created "false German hopes as in regards to British friendship and caused a reaction against it in England, where public opinion is very naturally hostile to the Nazi regime and its methods.
The P. We really must put a stop to this eternal butting in of amateurs — and Lord Mount Temple is a particularly silly one. These activities — which are practically confined to Germany — render impossible the task of diplomacy.
After Vansittart's memo, members of the Anglo-German Fellowship ceased to see Cabinet ministers after going on Ribbentrop-arranged trips to Germany.
In February , before a meeting with the Lord Privy Seal , Lord Halifax , Ribbentrop suggested to Hitler that Germany, Italy, and Japan begin a worldwide propaganda campaign with the aim of forcing Britain to return the former German colonies in Africa.
Ribbentrop's negotiating style, a mix of bullying bluster and icy coldness coupled with lengthy monologues praising Hitler, alienated many. Craig once observed that of all the voluminous memoir literature of the diplomatic scene of s Europe, there are only two positive references to Ribbentrop.
Rees concluded that "No other Nazi was so hated by his colleagues". In November , Ribbentrop was placed in a highly embarrassing situation, when his forceful advocacy of the return of the former German colonies led the British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and the French Foreign Minister Yvon Delbos to offer to open talks on returning the former German colonies, in return for which the Germans would make binding commitments to respect their borders in central and eastern Europe.
Ribbentrop's inability to achieve the alliance that he had been sent to conclude frustrated him, as he feared it could cost him Hitler's favour, and it made him a bitter Anglophobe. When Ribbentrop traveled to Rome in November to oversee Italy's adhesion to the Anti-Comintern Pact, he made clear to his hosts that the pact was really directed against Britain. In early Hitler asserted his control of the military-foreign policy apparatus, in part, by sacking Neurath.
In contrast to Neurath's cautious and less bellicose nature, Ribbentrop unequivocally supported war in — Ribbentrop's time as Foreign Minister can be divided into three periods. In the first, from to , he tried to persuade other states to align themselves with Germany for the coming war. In the second, from to , Ribbentrop attempted to persuade other states to enter the war on Germany's side or at least maintain pro-German neutrality. Many historians have suggested that Hitler was prepared to reinstate the Duke of Windsor as king in the hope of establishing a fascist Britain.
Reportedly 50 million Swiss francs were set aside for this purpose. In the final phase, from to , he had the task of trying to keep Germany's allies from leaving her side. During the course of all three periods, Ribbentrop met frequently with leaders and diplomats from Italy , Japan , Romania , Spain , Bulgaria , and Hungary.
During all this time, Ribbentrop feuded with various other Nazi leaders. One of Ribbentrop's first acts as Foreign Minister was to achieve a total volte-face in Germany's Far Eastern policies. Ribbentrop was instrumental in February in persuading Hitler to recognize the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and to renounce German claims upon her former colonies in the Pacific, which were now held by Japan. He strongly disliked Ribbentrop's idea of a "mechanical" destruction of Czechoslovakia via war, which he saw as too risky.
In the aftermath of Munich, Hitler was in a violently anti-British mood caused in part by his rage over being "cheated" out of the war to "annihilate" Czechoslovakia that he very much wanted to have in , and in part by his realization that Britain would neither ally herself nor stand aside in regard to Germany's ambition to dominate Europe.
Partly for economic reasons, and partly out of fury over being "cheated" out of war in , Hitler decided to destroy the rump state of Czecho-Slovakia as Czechoslovakia had been renamed in October early in Upon hearing of the Hungarian mobilization, Tiso was presented with the choice of either declaring independence with the understanding that the new state would be in the German sphere of influence, or seeing all of Slovakia absorbed into Hungary.
In March , Ribbentrop assigned the largely ethnic Ukrainian Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia region of Czecho-Slovakia, which had just proclaimed its independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine , to Hungary, which then proceeded to annex it after a short war.
Initially, Germany hoped to transform Poland into a satellite state, but by March German demands had been rejected by the Poles three times, which led Hitler to decide, with enthusiastic support from Ribbentrop, upon the destruction of Poland as the main German foreign policy goal of This marked a significant escalation of the German pressure on Poland, which until then had been confined to private meetings between German and Polish diplomats.
The German occupation of the Czech areas of Czecho-Slovakia on the Ides of March, in total contravention of the Munich Agreement that had been signed less than six months before, infuriated British and French public opinion and lost Germany all sympathy. Some of us are getting rather tired of the sanctimonious attitude which seeks to take upon our shoulders the blame for every crime committed in Europe. If Germany had been left stronger in she would sooner have been in a position to do what she is doing today.
By occupying the Czech parts of Czecho-Slovakia, Germany lost all credibility with its claim to be only righting the alleged wrongs of Versailles. Shortly afterwards, false reports spread in mid-March by the Romanian minister in London, Virgil Tilea, that his country was on the verge of an immediate German attack, led to a dramatic U-turn in British policy of resisting commitments in eastern Europe. On 31 March , British Prime Minister Chamberlain announced before the House of Commons the British "guarantee" of Poland, which committed Britain to go to war to defend Polish independence, though pointedly the "guarantee" excluded Polish frontiers.
A and the Non-Aggression Pact with Poland. In April , when Ribbentrop announced at a secret meeting of the senior staff of the Foreign Office that Germany was ending talks with the Poles and was instead going to destroy Poland in an operation late that year, the news was greeted joyfully by those present. In April , Ribbentrop received intelligence that Britain and Turkey were negotiating an alliance intended to keep Germany out of the Balkans.
Instead of focusing on talking to the Turks, Ribbentrop and Papen became entangled in a feud over Papen's demand that he by-pass Ribbentrop and send his dispatches straight to Hitler.