Turkish tribes asian steppes-Turkic migration - Wikipedia

The origins of the Turkic people are to be found with people who lived in present-day South Siberia and Mongolia, [26] while the roots of those people may be traced back to the West Liao River Basin modern Manchuria. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift , acculturation , intermixing , adoption and religious conversion. Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics like cultural traits, ancestry from a common gene pool , and historical experiences. Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. But the information gap is so substantial that a connect of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible.

Turkish tribes asian steppes

The dynamic within such a federation was always to acquire new territory, to satisfy the hunger for pasturage for its members flocks and herds. Turkish tribes asian steppes merchants tended to take their goods to cities near the borders, exchanging them for luxuries from distant lands; and western merchants Byzantines, Venetians, Genoese did likewise at Mediterranean and Black Sea ports. These Turks of Altai were mainly nomadic shepherds tending sheep, horses and sometimes camels. The Seljuq dynasty settled in Anatolia starting in the 11th century, ultimately resulting in permanent Turkic settlement and presence there. Languages of the World, Third Edition. One especially severe round of nomadic rebellion in the early 4th century has led to the certain identification of the Xiongnu with the Huns. Finally, much remains to be learned about the demographic consequences of this complex historical event and Turkish tribes asian steppes studies will Free picture gallery of female models the disentangling of multiple signals of admixture in the human genome and fine scale mapping of the geographic origins of individual chromosomal tracts. Early history of the steppe peoples: the Indo-Europeans Horses seem first to have been domesticated by groups on the western steppes — north of the Black and Caspian Seas — sometime in the 4th millennium BCE. New Rugs and Carpets. Altogether, combinations Turkish tribes asian steppes prepared and subjected to the three-population test implemented in the qp3Pop software [ 31 ].

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This grouping served for 2 main roles. Turkish tribes asian steppes Khaganate — Small numbers inhabit eastern Poland and the south-eastern part of Finland. This section needs expansion. It was gradually Turkish tribes asian steppes by Turkish tribes asian steppes Mahayana Buddhism. Later the Golden Horde Mongols used this strategy to good effect in Russia. Although the confederacy divided into western and eastern halves, these seem to have continued on friendly terms and to have co-operated with one another. Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed with the local populations to varying degrees. He ordered them to shoot his father to have himself the new Khan and later on he made this system to Disney world and gay days applied nation-wide. To the end, they commissioned elaborate copies of the Shahnameh, the Iranian national epic, such as this one made for Tahmasp in the s. Through the personal qualities of a certain tribal leader, other tribes were brought into an alliance with his tribe. Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom — It was in this area that they later founded the Seljuk Empire, and it was from this area that they spread west into western Asia and eastern Europe during Turkic migrations from the 9th until the 12th century.

The Eurasian Steppe , also called the Great Steppe or the steppes , is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

  • The origins of the Turkic people are to be found with people who lived in present-day South Siberia and Mongolia, [26] while the roots of those people may be traced back to the West Liao River Basin modern Manchuria.
  • A new period of steppe history began in when a powerful new Turkish confederacy, headquartered in the Altai Mountains , suddenly developed.
  • Except in a few favoured locations, the grasslands of central Asia are unsuitable for intensive farming, and are unable to support a dense population.

Turkic migration refers to the expansion of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia , Eastern Europe and West Asia , mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries.

The region of origin of the Turkic peoples is suggested to be somewhere in Siberia North Asia , Mongolia or northwestern Manchuria. The Seljuq dynasty settled in Anatolia starting in the 11th century, ultimately resulting in permanent Turkic settlement and presence there. Meanwhile, other Turkic tribes either ultimately formed independent nations, such as Kyrgyzstan , Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan , and others new enclaves within other nations, such as Chuvashia , Bashkortostan , Tatarstan , the Crimean Tatars , the Uyghurs in China , and the Sakha Republic Siberia.

According to Robbeets, the proto-Turkic people descend from the proto-Transeurasian language community, which lived the West Liao River Basin modern Manchuria around BCE and may be identified with the Xinglongwa culture.

Early anthropometric and genetic studies have not provided a conclusive answers about the origins of the proto-Turkic people. Khusnutdinova et al. Yunusbayev et al. During and after the migration into Central-Asia, these tribes mixed partially with Indo-European nomads.

Yet, western Turkic people share "an excess of long chromosomal tracts" which are identical with Turkic people from "present-day South Siberia and Mongolia SSM , an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities," lending support to "a previously hypothesized area of Mongolia and southern Siberia.

They lived in Mongolia or along the upper Yenisei in Siberia the area of the contemporary Tuvan language , and are known from historical sources. Chunwei lived among the "Mountain Barbarians" Xianyun or Hunzhu. Xianyun and Hunzhu's names may connect them to the Turkic people, who later were said [ by whom?

The Xiongnu were a tribal confederation [5] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources , inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BCE to the late 1st century CE. Later the treatise mentions others.

There were apparently many of the latter. In the Rong and the Di forced the relocation of Bin. About BCE the Quanyishi tribe was attacked by the Zhou Dynasty , which in forced all the barbarians into "the submissive wastes" north of the Jing and Luo Rivers. In Marquis Shen of the Zhou enlisted the assistance of the Quanrong in rebelling against the emperor You.

The barbarians did not then withdraw but took Jiaohuo between the Jing and Wei Rivers and from there went marauding into central China, but were driven out. He had discarded a barbarian queen.

The barbarians put another on the throne. They went on plundering until driven out in BC. Subsequently the Chinese drove out the Di and subordinated all the Xiongnu temporarily at least. Around BC the Chinese took Dai from them. The Yiqu tribe tried building fortifications but lost them to the Chinese in this period of their expansion. Here the detail of the narrative increases as it deals with the rise of the Qin Dynasty of BCE, which is no doubt mainly historical rather than legendary.

The Qin kept the Xiongnu at bay. Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu of BCE kept the Xiongnu at bay, [7] driving them out of and seizing the Ordos region. Emperor Gaozu of Han bought them off with jade , silk and a Chinese wife for the Shanyu, or leader. Attempts to identify the Xiongnu with later groups of the western Eurasian Steppe remain controversial. Scythians and Sarmatians were concurrently to the west. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses, because only a few words, mainly titles and personal names, were preserved in the Chinese sources.

The name Xiongnu may be cognate with that of the Huns or the Huna , [13] although this is disputed. The early-fourth-century saw a rebellion, with sacking of northern Chinese cities, by the Xiong-nu.

According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River , in an area that was part of Scythia at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of an Indo-Iranian people , the Alans.

The actual identity of the Huns is still debated. Concerning the cultural genesis of the Huns, the Cambridge Ancient History of China asserts: "Beginning in about the eighth century BC, throughout inner Asia horse-riding pastoral communities appeared, giving origin to warrior societies. The Scythians in the west were Iranian , speaking one among very many languages ultimately descended from Proto-Indo-European , whose speakers themselves are also hypothesised to have occupied the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, according to the leading theory of Indo-European origins , the Kurgan model.

The communities of the northern belt north of China, a historically Inner Mongolia region were the Proto-Xiongnu. The Huns have often been considered a Turkic people, and sometimes associated with the Xiongnu. One especially severe round of nomadic rebellion in the early 4th century has led to the certain identification of the Xiongnu with the Huns. A letter Letter II written in the ancient Sogdian language excavated from a Han Dynasty watchtower in identified the perpetrators of these events as the xwn , "Huns", supporting de Guignes ' identification.

The equivalence was not without its critics, notably Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen , who argued that xwn was a general name and could refer to anyone.

Orosius has the Huns riding down upon the Ostrogoths in the year AD totally by surprise, "long shut off by inaccessible mountains" [32] and apparently of hitherto unsuspected existence.

Whatever may have been his reasons for making such a statement, he and Goths might have found ample reference to the Huns in the classical geographers, such as Pliny and Ptolemy ; in fact, some were already in Europe. The Huns were not literate according to Procopius [34] and left nothing linguistic with which to identify them except their names, [34] which derive from Germanic, Iranian, Turkic, unknown and a mixture. Names ending in -gur, such as Utigur and Onogur , and -gir, such as Ultingir, are like Turkish names of the same endings.

The name Agac-eri occurred in later history in Anatolia and Khuzistan e. Maenchen-Helfen rejects this etymology on the grounds that g is not k and there appears to be no linguistic rule to make the connection. A number of sources identify the Bulgars with the Huns. The strongest candidate for a remnant of the speakers of the Hunnic language are the Chuvash , who are on or near the location of the Volga Bulgars. The end of the Huns as a Eurasian political unity is not known. A token end point for the Huns of the west, perhaps all the Huns, is the fixation of the head of Dengizich , a son of Attila , on a pole at Constantinople in He had been defeated in Thrace in that year by Anagastes , a Gothic general in the service of the Roman Empire.

Various peoples continued to call themselves Huns even though acting autonomously, such as the Sabir people. Their expansion has been conventionally called the "Turkic migration" but in fact the Turkics had already been "migrating" for some centuries. The first reference to "Turks" Tujue appears in Chinese sources of the 6th century. The earliest evidence of Turkic languages as a separate group comes from the Orkhon inscriptions of the early 8th century. The precise date of the initial expansion from the early homeland remains unknown.

Therefore, Gokturks are the Eastern Turks in the 6th century. The head of the Ashina clan led his people from Li-jien modern Zhelaizhai to the Rouran seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from China. Many groups speaking 'Turkic' languages never adopted the name "Turk" for their own identity. In other words, there wasn't a unified movement westward by a culture under one unified ethnic identity, such as that of the Mongol conquest of Eurasia under the Chinggisid political leadership.

Rather, Turkic languages — both peripheral ones like the Bulgar branch and central ones like the Oghuz and Karluk-Chagatai branches — drifted westward by autonomous movements of diverse tribes and migrating traders, soldiers and townspeople, outnumbering and assimilating non-Turkic indigenous peoples along the way, and being partly replaced by other language families that have become prominent in the east, such as Mongolic languages on the Mongolian steppes, Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent , and Persian in the Central Iranian Plateau.

Turks, and Turkmens. However, there were also some other groups of Turkic people who belonged to other religions, including Christians , Jews see Khazars , Buddhists , and Zoroastrians [ citation needed ]. While the Karakhanid state remained in this territory until its conquest by Genghis Khan , the Turkmen group of tribes was formed around the core of westward Oghuz. The name "Turkmen" originally simply meant "I am Turk" in the language of the diverse tribes living between the Karakhanid and Samanid states.

Thus, the ethnic consciousness among some, but not all Turkic tribes as "Turkmens" in the Islamic era came long after the fall of the non-Muslim Gokturk and Eastern and Western Khanates. Thus the ethnonym "Turk" for the diverse Islamized Turkic tribes somehow served the same function as the name " Tajik " did for the diverse Iranian peoples who converted to Islam and adopted Persian as their lingua-franca.

Long after the departure of the Turkmens from Transoxonia towards the Karakum and Caucasus , consciousness associated with the name "Turk" still remained, as Chagatay and Timurid period Central Asia was called "Turkestan" and the Chagatay language called "Turki", even though the people only referred to themselves as " Mughals ", "Sarts", "Taranchis" and " Tajiks ".

Among the Karakhanid period Turkmen tribes rose the Atabeg Seljuq of the Kinik tribe, whose dynasty grew into a great Islamic empire stretching from India to Anatolia. Turkic soldiers in the army of the Abbasid caliphs emerged as the de facto rulers of much of the Muslim Middle East apart from Syria and North Africa from the 13th century.

The Oghuz and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty , and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the Byzantine Empire. Meanwhile, the Kyrgyz and Uyghurs were struggling with one another and with the Chinese Empire. The Kyrgyz people ultimately settled in the region now referred to as Kyrgyzstan. The Batu hordes conquered the Volga Bulgars in what is today Tatarstan and Kypchaks in what is now Southern Russia, following the westward sweep of the Mongols in the 13th century.

Other Bulgars settled in Europe in the th centuries, but were assimilated by the Slavs , giving the name to the Bulgarians and the Slavic Bulgarian language. It was under Seljuq suzerainty that numerous Turkmen tribes, especially those that came through the Caucasus via Azerbaijan , acquired fiefdoms beyliks in newly conquered areas of Anatolia , Iraq and even the Levant.

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Main articles: Xiongnu and Han—Xiongnu War. Main article: Huns. Retrieved Shanghai: HGM Archived from the original on PLoS Genetics.

Quick and destructive raids were easy, but to hold agricultural regions as conquered territory represented a major challenge. At that time these migrated from the eastern steppes, where their original homeland was, probably in Mongolia. Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China 2nd ed. By , the eastern parts of the Syr Darya were ruled by the Karluk Turks and to their west were the Oghuz. Eds , Asimova, M. This signified "tribal allegiance".

Turkish tribes asian steppes

Turkish tribes asian steppes

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ANCIENT TURKS AND ALTAI TURKS | Facts and Details

The Eurasian Steppe , also called the Great Steppe or the steppes , is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. The Steppe route is a predecessor not only of the Silk Road which developed during antiquity and the Middle Ages , but also of the Eurasian Land Bridge in the modern era. There is no clear southern boundary although the land becomes increasingly dry as one moves south.

The steppe narrows at two points, dividing it into three major parts. Big mammals of the Eurasian steppe were the Przewalski's horse , the saiga antelope , the Mongolian gazelle , the goitered gazelle , the wild Bactrian camel and the onager. Threatened bird species living there are for example the imperial eagle , the lesser kestrel , the great bustard , the pale-back pigeon and the white-throated bushchat.

The primary domesticated animals raised were sheep and goats with fewer cattle than one might expect. Camels were used in the drier areas for transport as far west as Astrakhan. There were some yaks along the edge of Tibet. The horse was used for transportation and warfare. The horse was first domesticated on the Pontic—Caspian or Kazakh steppe sometime before BC, but it took a long time for mounted archery to develop and the process is not fully understood.

The stirrup does not seem to have been completely developed until AD see Stirrup , Saddle , Composite bow , Domestication of the horse and related articles.

The World Wide Fund for Nature divides the Eurasian steppe's temperate grasslands , savannas , and shrublands into a number of ecoregions , distinguished by elevation, climate, rainfall, and other characteristics, and home to distinct animal and plant communities and species, and distinct habitat ecosystems. For some purposes it is useful to treat Greater Iran as a separate region. All these regions are connected by the Eurasian Steppe route which was an active predecessor of the Silk Road.

A minor branch went northwest along the great rivers and north of the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. When faced with a rich caravan the steppe nomads could either rob it, or tax it, or hire themselves out as guards.

Economically these three forms of taxation or parasitism amounted to the same thing. The silk road first became significant and Chinese silk began reaching the Roman Empire about the time that the Emperor of Han pushed Chinese power west to the Tarim Basin. The nomads would occasionally tolerate colonies of peasants on the steppe in the few areas where farming was possible. These were often captives who grew grain for their nomadic masters. Along the fringes there were areas that could be used for either plowland or grassland.

These alternated between one and the other depending on the relative strength of the nomadic and agrarian heartlands. Over the last few hundred years, the Russian steppe and much of Inner Mongolia has been cultivated. At the beginning of written history the entire steppe population west of Dzungaria spoke Iranian languages. From about AD the Turkic languages replaced the Iranian languages first on the steppe, and later in the oases north of Iran. Additionally, Hungarian speakers, a branch of the Uralic language family, who previously lived in the steppe in what is now Southern Russia, settled in the Carpathian basin in year Mongolic languages are in Mongolia.

In Manchuria one finds Tungusic languages and some others. Tengriism was introduced by Turko-Mongol nomads. Nestorianism and Manichaeism spread to the Tarim Basin and into China, but they never became established majority religions. Buddhism spread from the north of India to the Tarim Basin and found a new home in China.

By about AD, the entire steppe west of Dzungaria had adopted Islam. Raids between tribes were prevalent throughout the region's history. This is connected to the ease with which a defeated enemy's flocks can be driven away, making raiding profitable. Horsemen could raid a village and retreat with their loot before an infantry-based army could be mustered and deployed. When confronted with superior infantry, horsemen could simply ride away and retreat and regroup.

Outside of Europe and parts of the Middle East, agrarian societies had difficulty raising a sufficient number of war horses, and often had to enlist them from their nomadic enemies as mercenaries. Nomads could not easily be pursued onto the steppe since the steppe could not easily support a land army. If the Chinese sent an army into Mongolia, the nomads would flee and come back when the Chinese ran out of supplies.

But the steppe nomads were relatively few and their rulers had difficulty holding together enough clans and tribes to field a large army. If they conquered an agricultural area they often lacked the skills to administer it. If they tried to hold agrarian land they gradually absorbed the civilization of their subjects, lost their nomadic skills and were either assimilated or driven out. Along the northern fringe the nomads would collect tribute from and blend with the forest tribes see Khanate of Sibir , Buryats.

Perhaps because of the mixture of agriculture and pastoralism in Manchuria its inhabitants, the Manchu , knew how to deal with both nomads and the settled populations, and therefore were able to conquer much of northern China when both Chinese and Mongols were weak. Russian culture and people were much influenced by the Asian nomads in the Russian steppe and the adjoining steppes and deserts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: History of the eastern steppe , History of the central steppe , and History of the western steppe. See also: Mongol invasions and conquests and Mongol military tactics and organization. Scott — Google Knihy. Archived from the original on Retrieved Zoology in the Middle East.

Archived PDF from the original on Annales historico-naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. Wigen, Einar, First ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom. The economy and material culture of Russia, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved April 20, Asia portal Europe portal. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: archived copy as title CS1 maint: extra punctuation CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles that may contain original research from September All articles that may contain original research Articles with unsourced statements from September Russia articles missing geocoordinate data All articles needing coordinates.

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Turkish tribes asian steppes

Turkish tribes asian steppes