The launch of the online application AyoPoligami. In the past, polygamy campaigners such as Solo-born Puspo Wardoyo promoted their cause by presenting themselves as exemplary examples of polygamous men. This application, however, is primarily concerned with making the process of entering a polygamous marriage as easy as possible. By simply ticking a box confirming that they have obtained permission from their first wife, men can get started. But AyoPolygami is not the only such app.
Pelras in Archipel 54 : pp. Today, at the time of the so-called Islamic revival, issues of concern to Muslim women secwra receiving increased attention and have been taken up in the press. Interestingly, Snouck noted a tendency to increased secrecy of the practice : Sundanese girls were circumcised at the same time as their teeth were being filed, so that their parents would speak only of the goesaran ceremony, a way of avoiding openly naming the operation Snouck Hurgronje : Banjarnegara Central Javaincision not full circumcision was reported Sex secara solo islam boys, but there was no mention of female circumcision. An anthropologist who asked his Acehnese Sex secara solo islam about the existence of female circumcision in his region saw how the Real estate sex wrote to his wife to inquire candidly about the matter, and later received an abrupt Sex secara solo islam that this was none of his business. Many fathers do not know when, where and by whom their daughters are circumcised". But Muslimat Chairwoman Aisyah Hamid disproved of it, and added it was not practiced in her family. The mean working week in Solo was Muslim Balinese and even among the Muslims of Singaraja where boys are circumcised at the age of 9 to 12 Schrieke : 18 ; in the western part of Lombok although male circumcision was linked to Islam there Schrieke : ; in the Maumere region on Flores Island Schrieke : 32 ; in east Flores the district of Lwingo ; in north west Zecara, in south west Sumba Sex secara solo islam : ; in Middle-Sumba Schrieke : 41 ; in East-Sumba Schrieke : ; in West-Middle Timor, where male circumcision took place as an secar to "nature" ; in Roti Island.
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The launch of the online application AyoPoligami. In the past, polygamy campaigners such as Solo-born Puspo Wardoyo promoted their cause by presenting themselves as exemplary examples of polygamous men. This application, however, is primarily concerned with making the process of entering a polygamous marriage as easy as possible.
By simply ticking a box confirming that they have obtained permission from their first wife, men can get started. But AyoPolygami is not the only such app. Another, Nikahsirri. Thousands reportedly registered on the website in its first few days, suggesting widespread enthusiasm for these unregistered marriages.
But despite the controversy they have created, there has been little discussion of the fact that unregistered marriage constitutes a criminal offence. Article of the Criminal Code KUHP , describes a penalty of five to seven years in prison for unregistered polygamous marriages. Further, under Article 90 of the Law on Civil Administration, failure to register a registerable marriage carries a fine of Rp 1 million.
The quotidian practices of polygamy and unregistered marriages, and the invention of these polygamy applications, show the discrepancy between law and practice. Beyond the legal concerns, these apps should also be understood in an environment of increasing cultural and religious concerns about sex, particularly extra-marital and premarital sex, and attempts to associate it with shame, guilt, and sin. The popularity of polygamous and unregistered marriages also partly reflects the competing religious and secular definitions of marriage in the Marriage Law.
This ambiguity creates space for the justification and commodification of informal marriages, especially when religious and cultural discourse associates sex outside wedlock with immorality and sin. Nikah siri can therefore conform with Islamic religious requirements even if not recognised by the state. Under the Marriage Law and Compilation of Islamic Law KHI , polygamy is only allowed under certain conditions: if the wife is unable to perform her duties as a wife, if she suffers from physical defects or incurable diseases, or is incapable of reproduction.
Men are also limited to a maximum of four wives. Even so, for a man to take on another wife, he must also obtain permission from his first wife or wives , demonstrate his commitment and capacity to fulfil the basic needs of his wives and children, and submit evidence of meeting all these conditions to a religious court.
Permission must be given by the court for a polygamous marriage not to constitute a criminal offence. Despite these requirements, however, scholars such as Nina Nurmila and Linda Rae Bennett have found that many Indonesian men continue to practice polygamy without the consent of their first wives and without meeting the stipulated conditions.
Nurmila has also written about how the high numbers of unregistered marriages makes obtaining accurate data on polygamous marriages difficult. Unregistered religious marriages offer a convenient and strategic way to have what are often secret polygamous arrangements, or at least, to channel sexual desires without fear of committing a sin.
So despite the strong protections against polygamy in Indonesian law, these legal protections mean little if there is no significant transformation in the ways Indonesians view sexuality. And consequently, sexuality has become increasingly scrutinised, politicised and regulated, producing a narrow version of sexual morality.
This preoccupation with monitoring and regulating sexual morality through religious norms shows how Indonesians are actually obsessed with sex. Through dominant cultural and religious discourse, the connections between fear, guilt, and shame of sex are reproduced.
But people are not without agency. There are always multiple means to circumvent narrow views of morality. Many people seek religiously valid ways to channel their otherwise suppressed sexual desires, which are deemed sinful if expressed out of wedlock. While unregistered marriages might not be recognised by the state, they provide a convenient means to channel sexual desires without violating strict religious norms.
In a similar vein, polygamy, through its connection with nikah siri , can also be used to justify sex. The competing religious and legal definitions of marriage, combined with a shame and fear of sex or obsession with sex , in an increasingly religious Indonesia has provided new and fertile opportunities for business.
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Its built-up or metro area made of Surakarta Municipality and 59 districts spread on 7 regencies was home to 3,, inhabitants as of census. Surakarta is the birthplace of the current President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo. He served as Mayor of Surakarta from to In — there were only 12 wells in Surakarta. The total reservoir capacity is 9, m 3 ,, U. The city has a lengthy wet season spanning from October through June, and a relatively short dry season covering the remaining three months July through September.
As is common in areas featuring a tropical monsoon climate, temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year. After Surakarta became a city, it was divided into five districts kecamatan , each led by a camat , and subdivided into 51 kelurahan , each led by a lurah. The districts of Surakarta are: . Surakarta as a dense core city in Central Java, and its second city, spills considerably into neighboring regencies. Though a traffic study quotes the population as 1,, as of ,  this reflects only the very core, as the city affects entire neighboring regencies by significantly driving up overall population densities in Sukoharjo Regency and Klaten Regency over the already dense countryside.
Both the metropolitan area and extended areas border Yogyakarta's metropolitan area, while only the extended metropolitan area borders Kedungsapur or Greater Semarang. One of the earliest censuses held in Surakarta Residency Residentie Soerakarta was in The capital of the residency itself roughly the size of the City of Solo proper in had , people living in it. According to the census, there were , males and , females a sex ratio of The labor force of Solo in was ,, of whom , were working, while 28, were seeking work.
Another , people aged 15 and above were not in the labor force. The mean working week in Solo was According to statistics, , people above 15 in the city had finished high school, while 86, had only finished junior high school, and 94, were still in school or had only finished elementary school.
The per capita GDP of Surakarta in was 16,, Surakarta has a long sport history and tradition. In Solo already had a football club , one of the earliest clubs in Indonesia at that time still the Dutch Indies , called Persis Solo. Persis Solo was a giant club in the Dutch Indies and still exists, but is past its heyday.
During the Perserikatan tournament, Persis became seven-time champion. Currently it plays in the Premier Division. Surakarta has hosted the first National Paralympic Games Pekan Paralimpiade Nasional in and hosted several of the subsequent games. As a result, Surakarta has sport facilities sufficient for holding international disabled sports games. There is also taxicab service. In Adisumarmo had 2, outbound domestic flights and outbound international flights. Solo Balapan is the largest station in Surakarta, and is the junction between Yogyakarta westward , Semarang northward , and Surabaya eastward , while Purwosari is the junction located west of Solo Balapan, and has a connection to Wonogiri southward.
Tirtonadi Terminal is the largest bus terminal in Surakarta. A Semarang—Solo Toll Road is currently under construction. In the total extent of roadways in the city was A single trip costs Rp. A special ticket for the trip from or to the airport costs Rp. One main tourist attraction of Surakarta is the Keraton Surakarta , the palace of Susuhunan Pakubuwono, also the Princely Javanese court of Mangkunegaran.
The Pasar Klewer is famous for its batiks in all prices and qualities, while the Pasar Triwindhu located near Mangkunegaran palace specialises in antiques. Near the park is Radyapustaka Museum, one of the oldest museums in Indonesia, with a collection of Javanese cultural artefacts.
The traditional batik village of Laweyan and Kampung Batik Kauman, located in the southwest part of the city and the city centre respectively, are famous for producing fine quality Javanese batik. Within Surakarta tourists can also use the Jaladara old steam train which was launched on in September for 5.
In there were 60 trips and in will be 80 trips. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Surakarta disambiguation. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. City in Central Java, Indonesia. Location within Central Java. Location in Java and Indonesia. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Indonesia.
Indonesia portal. Retrieved October 8, Archived from the original on May 21, Retrieved January 7, Archived from the original on December 4, Retrieved March 19, Archived from the original on December 18, Archived from the original on December 20, Archived from the original on December 26, Archived from the original on December 28, Archived from the original on June 21, Retrieved March 30, Retrieved December 13, Kementrian Pemuda dan Olahraga Republik Indonesia.
March 15, Retrieved November 5, April 13, Portal Informasi Kota Surakarta". Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved May 1, April 10, Portal Nasional Republik Indonesia.
October 21, Retrieved January 25, Subdistricts of Surakarta , Central Java. Banjarsari Jebres Laweyan Pasarkliwon Serengan. Regencies and cities of Central Java. See also: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia. Categories : Surakarta Solo River. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Source: climate-data. Karanganyar Regency. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surakarta. Pictures of Surakarta on Flickr. Video about Solo and surrounding from archive. Capital: Semarang.